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Grainger Hunt
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Grainger Hunt

   Biography

Grainger wrote his Master’s thesis on peregrine migration in 1966 at Sul Ross University. He received his doctorate in Zoology from the University of Texas in 1970 with a specialty in evolutionary genetics. He now studies population and foraging ecology of birds of prey. He studied golden eagle ecology in west-central California during 1994-2001, and conducted four prior long-term, comprehensive studies of bald and golden eagles in Washington, California, and Arizona, spanning 20 years. He researched the ecology of nesting peregrines in Texas, Mexico, and the California Channel Islands. As a commercial pilot, he tracked peregrine falcons and bald eagles on long-distance migrations and conducted aerial surveys of ranging, survival, and habitat selection. He was a member of the Peregrine Falcon Recovery Team for the western states, and the California Bald Eagle and Peregrine Falcon Working teams for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. He has numerous reports and publications. After retiring from the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California at Santa Cruz, he joined The Peregrine Fund in 2001 to serve as Senior Scientist for the California Condor and Aplomado Falcon restoration projects. Grainger enjoys fishing, hunting, horseback riding, and archery. His three children are Philo, Marybelle, and Brady, and his wife Terry is a biologist who shares his interest in raptors.

The Peregrine Fund
552-205 James Drive  
McArthur,  CA  96056  United States
Phone: 530-336-7281 Fax: 530-336-6465
Email: grainger@peregrinefund.org


   Research Interests

Population ecology, evolution, conservation, natural history

Species of Interest: 
  • Haliaeetus leucocephalus
  • Aquila chrysaetos
  • Falco peregrinus
  • Falco femoralis


   Publications

Parish, C. & W.G. Hunt. 2016. The Peregrine Fund's California Condor recovery program, northern Arizona and southern Utah, USA. pp. 92-97. in Soorae, P.S. (ed.). Global re-introduction perspectives: 2016. Case-studies from around the globe. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group and Abu Dhabi, UAE: Environment Agency- Abu Dhabi. xiv + 276pp.       pdf

Hunt, W.G., C.J.W. McClure and T.D. Allison. 2015. Do raptors react to ultraviolet light? Journal of Raptor Research 49(3):342-343.       pdf

Hunt, W.G. 2011. Silent Alert - An appreciation of the Cooper's Hawk. Living Bird 30(2):16-19

Hunt, W.G. 2011. Christy and the Cliff Swallow. Birdwatching 2011(June):32-34.

Watson, R.T., T.J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (eds.). 2011. (Book) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world. Vols. I-II. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA. http://www.peregrinefund.org/subsites/conference-gyr/proceedings/index.html

Hunt, G. 2011. On being a bird in the Arctic. Pp. 27-31 in R.T. Watson, T.J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (eds.), Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world. Vol. I. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, ID.       pdf

Watson,R.T., T.J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (eds.). 2011. (Book) Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world. Vols. I-II. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, ID.

Green, R.H., W.G. Hunt, C.N. Parish, and I. Newton. 2009. Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California Condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition. Pp. 240-253 in R.T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and G. Hunt (eds.), Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, ID.       pdf

Hunt, G. 2009. Golden Eagles and us. Living Bird 28:20-29.       pdf

Hunt, W.G., D.E. Driscoll, R.I. Mesta, J.H. Barclay, and R.E. Jackman. 2009. Migration and survival of juvenile Bald Eagles from Arizona. Journal of Raptor Research 43(2):121-126.       pdf

Stroud, R.K. and W.G. Hunt. 2009. Gunshot wounds: a source of lead in the environment. In R.T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W.G. Hunt (eds.), Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA. DOI 10.4080/ilsa.2009.0109       pdf

Parish, C.N., W.G. Hunt, E. Feltes, R. Sieg, and K. Orr. 2009. Lead exposure among a reintroduced population of California Condors in northern Arizona and southern Utah. In R. T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W. G. Hunt (eds.), Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, USA. DOI 10.4080/ilsa.2009.0217

Hunt, W.G., R.T. Watson, J.L. Oaks, C.N. Parish, K.K. Burnham, R.L. Tucker, J.R. Belthoff, and G. Hart. 2009. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure. PLoS ONE 4(4): e5330.       pdf

Hunt, W.G., C.N. Parish, K. Orr, and R.F. Aguilar. 2009. Lead poisoning and the reintroduction of the California Condor in northern Arizona. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 23(2):145-150.       pdf

Macías-Duarte, A., A.B. Montoya, C.E. Méndez-González, J.R. Rodríguez-Salazar, W.G. Hunt, and P.G. Krannitz. 2009. Factors influencing habitat use by migratory grassland birds in Chihuahua, Mexico. Auk 126:896-905.       pdf

Green, R.E., W.G. Hunt, C.N. Parish, and I. Newton. 2008. Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California Condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition. PLoS ONE 3(12): e4022. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0004022       pdf

Jackman, R.E., W. Grainger Hunt, and N.L. Hutchins. 2007. Bald Eagle foraging and reservoir management in northern California. Journal of Raptor Research 41:202-211.       pdf

Brown, J.L., M.W. Collopy, E.J. Gott, P.W. Juergens, A. Montoya, and W.G. Hunt. 2006. Wild-reared Aplomado Falcons survive and recruit at higher rates than hacked falcons in a common environment. Biological Conservation 131:453-458.       pdf

Parish, C.N., W.R. Heinrich, and W.G. Hunt. 2006. Lead exposure, diagnosis, and treatment in California Condors released in Arizona. Pp. 97-108 in A. Mee, L.S. Hall and J. Grantham (eds.), California Condors in the 21st Century. Special Publication of the American Orinithologists’ Union and Nuttall Ornithological Club.       pdf

Hunt, W.G., W. Burnham, C.N. Parish, K. Burnham, B. Mutch, and J.L. Oaks. 2006. Bullet fragments in deer remains: implications for lead exposure in scavengers. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:168-171.       pdf

Hunt, W.G., T.J. Cade, and A.B. Montoya. 2006. Home above the range. Natural History 115:48-54.        pdf

Hunt, W.G., C.N. Parish, S.C. Farry, R. Seig, and T.G. Lord. 2006. Movements of introduced California Condors in Arizona in relation to lead exposure. Pp. 79-96 in A. Mee, L.S. Hall, and J. Grantham (eds.), California Condors in the 21st Century. Special Publication of the American Ornithologists’ Union and Nuttall Ornithological Club.       pdf

Hunt, W.G., and T.L. Hunt. 2006. The trend of Golden Eagle territory occupancy in the vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 survey. California Energy Commission, PIER Energy-Related Environmental Research. CEC-500-2006-256

Cade, T.J., S.A.H. Osborn, W. G. Hunt, and C.P. Woods. 2004. Commentary on released California Condors Gymnogyps californianus in Arizona. Pp. 11-25 in R.D. Chancellor and B.-U. Meyburg (eds.), Raptors worldwide. World Working Group on Bird of Prey and Owls, Berlin, Germany.

Hunt, G. 2004. Northern Arizona is condor country. The Peregrine Fund Newsletter 35: 4-5.

Hunt, G. 2004. Restoring Aplomado Falcons to Texas. The Peregrine Fund Newsletter 35: 2-3.

Jenny, J. Peter, W. Heinrich, A. Montoya, B. Mutch, C. Sandfort, and W.G. Hunt. 2004. From the field: progress in restoring the aplomado falcon to southern Texas. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32:276-285.       pdf

Macias-Duarte, A., A. B. Montoya, W. G. Hunt, A. Lafón-Terrazas, and R. Tafanelli. 2004. Reproduction, prey, and habitat of the Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) in desert grasslands of Chihuahua, Mexico. Auk 121: 1081-1093.       pdf

Hunt, G. 2003. Aplomado Falcon research. The Peregrine Fund Newsletter 34:1.

Hunt, W.G. 2002. Golden Eagles in a perilous landscape: predicting the effects of mitigation for wind turbine blade-strike mortality. University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, Contract Number 500-97-4033, P500-02-043F.

Hunt, G. 2002. (Abstract) Diagnosing the health of a raptor population. Pp. 49, 110 in Conferencia sobre Aves Rapaces Neotropicales y Simposio del Águila Arpía. Fondo Peregrino - Panamá, Panamá City, Panamá.

Hunt, W. G. 2002. Golden Eagles in a perilous landscape: predicting the effects of mitigation for wind turbine blad strike mortality. Report to the California Energy Commission. University of California, Santa Cruz, CA.

Hunt, W.G., R.E. Jackman, D.E. Driscoll, and E.W. Bianchi. 2002. Foraging ecology of nesting bald eagles in Arizona. Raptor Research 36:245-255.

Philips, J. R., W. G. Hunt, and S. W. Matteson. 2002. Arthropods from a Zone-tailed Hawk nest in Texas. Southwestern Entomologist 27: 293-295.

White, C.M., N.J. Clum, T.J. Cade, and W.G. Hunt. 2002. Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). In A. Poole and F. Gill (eds), The Birds of North America No. 660. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Hunt, W. G. 2001. Continuing studies of Golden Eagles at Altamont Pass. P. 15 in S.S. Schwartz (ed.), Proceedings of the National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV. Resolve, Inc., Washington, D. C.

Hunt, W. G. 2000. A population study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: population trend analysis 1994-1997 executive summary. Pp. 15-17 in PNAWPPM-III (eds.), Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting III, LGL ltd., King City, Ontario, Canada.

Hunt, W.G. and P.R. Law. 2000. Site-dependent regulation of population size: comment. Ecology 81:1162-1165.

Driscoll, D. E., R. E. Jackson, W. G. Hunt, G. L. Beatty, J. T. Driscoll, R. L. Glinski, T. A. Gatz, and R. I. Mesta. 1999. Status of nesting Bald Eagles in Arizona. Journal of Raptor Research 33: 218-226.

Hunt, W.G., R.E. Jackman, T.L. Brown, and L. Culp. 1999. A population study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: population trend analysis 1994-1997. Report to National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Subcontracts XAT-5-15174-01, XAT-6-16459-01 to the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz.

Jackman, R. E., W. G. Hunt, J. M. Jenkins, and P. J. Detrich. 1999. Prey of nesting Bald Eagles in northern California. Journal of Raptor Research 33: 87-96.

Jenkins, J. M., R. E. Jackman, and W. G. Hunt. 1999. Survival and movements of immature Bald Eagles fledged in northern California. Journal of Raptor Research 33: 81-86.

Hunt, W. G. 1998. Raptor floaters at Moffat’s equilibrium. Oikos 82:191-197.

Hunt, W. G. 1998. Bald Eagle. Pp. 50-54 in The raptors of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Hunt, W.G., R.E. Jackman, T.L. Brown, D.E. Driscoll, and L. Culp. 1996. A population study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: second-year progress report. Report to National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Subcontracts XAT-5-15174-01 and XAT-6-16459-01 to the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz.

Hunt, W.G., R.E. Jackman, T.L. Brown, J. G. Gilardi, D.E. Driscoll, and L. Culp. 1995. A pilot Golden Eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California. Report to National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Subcontract No. XCG-4-14200 to the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz.

Jenkins, J. M., R. M. Jurek, D. K. Garcelon, R. Mesta, W. G. Hunt, R. E. Jackman, D. E. Driscoll, and R. W. Risebrough. 1994. DDE contamination and population parameters of Bald Eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus in California and Arizona, USA. Pp. 751-756 in Meyburg, B.-U., and R. D. Chancellor (eds.), Raptor conservation today. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls, Berlin, Germany.

Jackman, R. E., W. G. Hunt, D. E. Driscoll, and J. M. Jenkins. 1993. A modified floating fish snare for capture of inland Bald Eagles. North American Bird Bander 18: 98-101.

Enderson, J.H., A.R. Harmata, W.G. Hunt, L.F. Kiff, and C.M. White. 1993. Addendum to the Pacific Coast (1982) and Rocky Mountain/Southwest (revised, 1984) American Peregrine Falcon recovery plans. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR.       pdf

Hunt, W.G., D.E. Driscoll, E.W. Bianchi, and R.E. Jackman. 1992. Ecology of Bald Eagles in Arizona. BioSystems Analysis, Santa Cruz, CA.

Hunt, W. G., R. E. Jackman, J. M. Jenkins, C. G. Thelander, and R. N. Lehman. 1992. Northward post-fledging migration of California Bald Eagles. Journal of Raptor Research 26: 19-23.

Hunt, W. G., J. M. Jenkins, R. E. Jackman, C. G. Thelander, and A. T. Gerstell. 1992. Foraging ecology of Bald Eagles on a regulated river. Journal of Raptor Research 26: 243-256.

Hunt, W. G., B. S. Johnson, and R. E. Jackman. 1992. Carrying capacity for Bald Eagles wintering along a northwestern river. Journal of Raptor Research 26: 49-60.

Hunt, W.G., J.H. Enderson, D. Lanning, M.A. Hitchcock, and B.S. Johnson. 1988. Nesting peregrines in Texas and northern Mexico. Pp. 115-121 in T. Cade, J.H. Enderson, C.G. Thelander, and C.M. White (eds.), Peregrine Falcon populations: their management and recovery. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, ID.

Hunt, W. G. 1988. The natural regulation of Peregrine Falcon populations. Pp. 667-676 in T.J. Cade, J.H. Enderson, C.G. Thelander, and C.M. White (eds.), Peregrine Falcon populations, their management and recovery. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, ID.

Hunt, W. G., and F. P. Ward. 1988. Habitat selection by spring migrant peregrines at Padre Island, Texas. Pp. 527-535 in Cade, T. J., J. H. Enderson, C. G. Thelander, and C. M. White (eds.), Peregrine Falcon populations: their management and recovery. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, ID.

Skaggs, R. W., D. H. Ellis, W. G. Hunt, and T. H. Johnson. 1988. Peregrine Falcon. National Wildlife Federation Scientific and Technical Series 11: 127-136.

Hunt, W. G. 1987. Radio telemetry in the study of raptor habitat selection. Journal of Raptor Research 21: 144-146.

Hunt, W. G., B. S. Johnson, C. G. Thelander, B. J. Walton, and R. W. Risebrough. 1986. Environmental levels of p, p'-DDE indicate multiple sources. Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry 5: 21-27.

Risebrough, R. W., W. M. Jarman, and W. G. Hunt. 1986. A metabolic derivation of DDE from Kelthane. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 5: 13-19.

Hunt, W. G., B. S. Johnson, J. B. Bulger, and C. Thelander. 1980. Impacts of a proposed Copper Creek dam on Bald Eagles. BioSystems Analysis, San Francisco, CA.

Porter, R. D., G. Craig, D. Ellis, J. Enderson, and W. Hunt. 1978. Status of the Peregrine Falcon in the Rocky Mountains and the southwestern United States, Baja, California and Mexico (south of Texas). Pp. 26-32 in Schaeffer, P. O., and S. M. Ehlers (eds.), The current status of Peregrine Falcon populations in North America. National Audubon Society, Western Education Center, Tiburon, CA.

Hunt, W. G., R. R. Rogers, and D. J. Slowe. 1975. Migratory and foraging behavior of Peregrine Falcons on the Texas coast. Canadian Field-Naturalist 89: 111-123.

Hunt, W. G. 1966. Observations of peregrines on the Texas coast. M.A. Thesis, Sul Ross State College, Alpine, TX.



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