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David M. Bird
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David M. Bird

   Biography

I am Professor of Wildlife Biology and Director of the Avian Science and Conservation Centre of McGill University. I am currently a board member of the Raptor Research Foundation Inc. and Director of World Working Group on Birds of Prey and the Endangered Species Recovery Council. I was elected a Fellow of the American Ornithologists' Union in 1996 and was elected as a member to represent Canada on the International Ornithological Committee in 1998.
I have much experience in the area of public relations, produced a weekly nature report for CFCF-CTV, a major English television network in Quebec for 3 years,and I produced seven television reports for The Discovery Channel (Canada) in 1995. I have been writing a weekly column on birds in The Gazette (Quebec's only major English newspaper) since 1984, and I am a regular columnist on bird behaviour for the bimonthly magazine, Bird-Watchers' Digest and their bimonthly newsletter, Backyard Bird News.
I have authored two books, City Critters: How to Live with Urban Wildlife and The Bird Almanac: The Ultimate Guide to Essential Facts and Figures on the World's Birds. With Dr. Rodger Titman, I teach a Bird Course to the general public each May. I have led ecotours to Costa Rica, Belize, India, Peru, and the Virgin Islands.
I have published over 95 papers in refereed scientific journals, and I was the editor of three conference proceedings, one book and two newsletters. I have supervised 21 M.Sc. and 4 Ph.D. to completion of their degrees at McGill University. In terms of teaching at McGill University, lectures on ornithology, communication and interpretation methods, wildlife conservation, fish and wildlife propagation, and fisheries and wildlife management.

Professor of Wildlife Biology, Department of Natural Resource Sciences
Macdonald Campus of McGill University  21,111 Lakeshore Rd.
Ste.-Anne-de-Bellevue,  Quťbec  H9X 3V9  Canada
Phone: (514) 398-7760 Fax: (514) 398-7990
Email: david.bird@mcgill.ca


   Research Interests

Associated with the Avian Science and Conservation Centre, my main research interests to date have focused on raptorial birds, encompassing virtually all aspects of their biology. The following areas are of special interest: reproductive physiology, toxicology, nutrition, ecology, behaviour, genetics and management. Have worked largely with falcons, having at my disposal a captive colony of approximately 250 American Kestrels. Have a strong interest in collaborating with other scientists in areas of toxicology, reproductive physiology, as well as with endangered species research. Participating in recovery programs for endangered Peregrine Falcons and Loggerhead Shrikes. Have world-wide contacts in ornithology. Also interested in human-bird interactions, e.g. control of nuisance wildlife, impact of ecotourism and development, golf courses, etc.

Species of Interest: 
  • Osprey
  • Short-eared Owl
  • Loggerhead Shrike
  • Turkey Vulture
  • Sharp-shinned Hawk
  • Cooper's Hawk
  • Red-shouldered Hawk
  • Red-tailed Hawk
  • Merlin
  • Gyrfalcon
  • American Kestrel
  • Peregrine Falcon


   Publications

Books:

Bird, D.M., and K.L Bildstein (eds.). 2007. Raptor research and management techniques. Hancock Publishing House, Surrey, British Columbia.

Bird, D.M. 1999. Bird's eye view. Vehicule Press, Montreal, Quebec.

Bird, D.M. 1999. The bird almanac: the ultimate guide to essential facts and figures on the world's birds. Key Porter Books/Firefly Books, Toronto, Ontario.

Bird, D.M., D.E. Varland, and J.J. Negro (eds.). 1996. Raptors in human landscapes. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Bird, D.M., and R. Bowman (eds.). 1987. The ancestral kestrel. Raptor Research Report 6:1-178.

Bird, D.M. 1986. City critters: how to live with urban wildlife. Eden Press, Montreal, Quebec.

Bird, D.M. (chief ed.). 1983. Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys: Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on Bald Eagles and Ospreys, Montreal, 28-29 October, 1981. Macdonald Raptor Research Centre of McGill University and Raptor Research Foundation, Inc., Montreal, Quebec.

Papers:

Bťlisle, E., M.S. Gahbauer, and D.M. Bird. 2012. Unusual behaviors by a juvenile Peregrine Falcon: parental interference, siblicide and incest. Journal of Raptor Research 46:324-326.

Cade, T.J., and D.M. Bird. 2011. Seasonal changes in diet of Gyrfalcons nesting at Ellesmere Island and other high Arctic locations. Pp. 355-370 in R.T. Watson, T.J. Cade, M. Fuller, G. Hunt, and E. Potapov (eds.), Gyrfalcons and ptarmigan in a changing world. Vol. I. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, ID.       pdf

Heath, J.A., E.H. Strasser, M.A. Foster, L. Bardo, and D.M. Bird. 2011. Challenges in creating an American Kestrel body condition index based on size-adjusted mass. Journal of Raptor Research 45:324-334.

Bird, D.M., and L. Bardo. 2010. Use of captive Eastern Screech-owls (Megascops asio) as a captive wildlife model: a response to Wiemeyer. Journal of Raptor Research 44:253.       pdf

Bardo, L., and D.M. Bird. 2009. The use of captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) as wildlife models: a review. Journal of Raptor Research 43:345-364.

Bird, D.M. 2009. The American Kestrel: from common to scarce? Journal of Raptor Research 43:261-262.       pdf

Olsen, J., E. Fuentes, D.M. Bird, A.B. Rose, and D. Judge. 2008. Dietary shifts based upon prey availability in Peregrine Falcons and Australian Hobbies breeding near Canberra, Australia. Journal of Raptor Research 42:125-137.       pdf

Blanco, J., J. Samour, and D.M. Bird. 2007. Reproductive physiology. Pp. 286-292 in D.M. Bird and K.L. Bildstein (eds.), Raptor Research and Management Techniques. Hancock House Publishers, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada.

Platt, J.B., D.M. Bird, and L. Bardo. 2007. Captive breeding. Pp. 383-400 in D.M. Bird and K.L. Bildstein (eds.), Raptor Research and Management Techniques. Hancock House Publishers, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada.

Richards, N.K., P. Mineau, D.M. Bird, P. Wery, J. Larive, and J. Duffe. 2007. First observation of an Eastern Screech-owl population in an apple-producing region of southern Quebex. Canadian Field-Naturalist 120:289-297.

Richards, N.L., P. Mineau, and D.M. Bird. 2006. The case for sampling Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio) admitted to rehabilitation facilities for evidence of exposure to pesticides and persistent chemicals. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation 28:4-9.

Chubbs, T.E., M.J. Solensky, D.K. Laing, D.M. Bird, and G. Goodyear. 2005. Using a portable, anchorbolt ladder to access rock-nesting Osprey. Journal of Raptor Research 39:103-106.

Laing, D.K., D.M. Bird, and T.E. Chubbs. 2005. First complete migration cycles for juvenile Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from Labrador. Journal of Raptor Research 39:12-18.       pdf

Richards, N. L., P. Mineau, and D.M. Bird. 2005. A risk assessment approach to DDE exposure based on the case of the Eastern Screech Owl (Megaoscops asio) in apple orchards of southern Quebec. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 49:403-409.

Solensky, M.J., D.K. Laing, D.M. Bird, and G. Goodyear. 2005. Using a portable, anchor-bolt ladder to access rock-nesting Osprey. Journal of Raptor Research 39:103-106.

Bird, D.M., B. Hunter, and P. Redig. 2004. Prevalence of West Nile virus in birds of prey in North America. In P. Soorae (ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd Africa and Middle East Section, Wildlife Disease Association Meeting, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, December 10-13, 2004. [CD-ROM]

Richards, N.L., P. Mineau, and D.M. Bird. 2004. Exposure of the Eastern Screech-owl (Otus asio) to organophosphorus insecticides and anticoagulant rodenticides in apple orchards of southern Quebec, Canada. Pp. 389-498 in R.D. Chancellor and B.-U. Meyburg (eds.), Raptors Worldwide. World Working Group on Birds of Prey, Berlin.

Bortolotti, G.R., J.E. Smits, and D.M. Bird. 2003. Iris colour of American Kestrels varies with age, sex and exposure to PCBs. Biochemical and Physiological Zoology 76:99-10.

Coleman, J.L. and D.M. Bird. 2003. Urban Sharp-shinned Hawk productivity in Quebec. Bird Trends 9: 13-16.

Love, O.P., D.M. Bird, and L.J. Shutt. 2003. Corticosterone levels during post-natal development in captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). General and Comparative Endocrinology 130:135-141.

Love, O.P., L.J. Shutt, J.S. Silfies, and D.M. Bird. 2003. Repeated restraint and sampling results in reduced corticosterone levels in developing and adult captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76:753-761.

Tittlemier, S.A., J.A. Duffe, A.D. Dallaire, D.M. Bird, and R.J. Norstrom. 2003. Reproductive and morphological effects of halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles on captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22:1497-1506.

Nicholls, M.K., O.P. Love, and D.M. Bird. 2000. An evaluation of methyl anthranilate, aminoacetophenone, and unfamiliar coloration as feeding repellents to American Kestrels. Journal of Raptor Research 34:311-318.       pdf

Anderson, S.J., D.M. Bird, and M.D. Hagen. 2002. Semen characteristics of the Quaker Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). Zoo Biology 21:507-512.

Smallwood, J.A., and D.M. Bird. 2002. American Kestrel (Falco sparverius). In A. Poole and F. Gill (eds.), The Birds of North America no. 602. The Birds of North America, Inc., Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, and American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

Penfold, L.M., V. Harnal, W. Lynch, D.M. Bird, S.R. Derrickson, and D.E. Wildt. 2001. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ejaculate characterization and the effects of sperm preservation and fertility. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 121:267-275.       pdf

Villarroel, M.R., D.M. Bird, and U. Kuhnlein. 1998. Copulatory behaviour and paternity in the American Kestrel: the adaptive significance of frequent copulations. Animal Behaviour 56:289-299.        pdf

Anderson, D.J., J. Reeve, and D.M. Bird. 1997. Sexually dimorphic eggs in American Kestrels. Functional Ecology 11:331-334.        pdf

Reeve, J., and D.M. Bird. 1997. Sexually dimorphic eggs; nestling growth and sibling competition in American Kestrels Falco sparverius. Functional Ecology 11:331-335.

Agostino, N., D.M. Bird, and J.J. Negro. 1996. Social behavior of captive fledgling American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Journal of Raptor Research 30:240-241.        pdf

Bird, D.M. 1996. Migration; your questions answered. Bird Watcher's Digest 18:100-107.

Negro, J.J., J. Bustamante, J. Milward, and D.M. Bird. 1996. Captive fledgling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) prefer to play with objects resembling natural prey. Animal Behaviour 52:707-714.

Negro, J.J., M. Villarroel, J.L. Tella, U. Kuhnlein, F. Hiraldo, J.A. Donazar, and D.M. Bird. 1996. DNA fingerprinting reveals a low incidence of extra-pair fertilizations in the Lesser Kestrel. Animal Behaviour 51:935-943.        pdf

Tella, J.L., J.J. Negro, M. Villarroel, U. Kuhnlein, F. Hiraldo, J.A. Donazar, and D.M. Bird. 1996. DNA fingerprinting reveals polygny in the Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni). Auk 113:262-265.        pdf

Lacombe, D., D.M. Bird, K.A. Hunt, and P. Mineau. 1994. The impact of fenthion on birds of prey. Pp. 757-759 in B.-U. Meyburg and R. Chancellor (eds.), Raptor Conservation Today. World Working Gorup on Birds of Prey, Berlin and Pica Press, London.

Negro, J.J., A. Chastin, and D.M. Bird. 1994. Effects of short-term food deprivation on growth of hand-reared American Kestrels. Condor 96:749-760        pdf

Anderson, D.J., C. Budde, V. Apanius, J.E. Martinez Gomez, D.M. Bird, and W.W. Weathers. 1993. Prey size influences female competitive dominance in nestling American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Ecology 74:367-376.

Anderson, D.J., J. Reeve, J.E. Martinez Gomez, W. Weathers, S. Hutson, H. Cunningham, and D.M. Bird. 1993. Sexual size dimorphism and food requirements of nestling birds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:2541-2545.        pdf

Nicholls, M.K., and D.M. Bird. 1993. Detection of a genetic basis of morphometric variation in captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Pp. 233-237 in M.K. Nicholls and R. Clarke (eds.), The Biology and Conservation of Small Falcons. Hawk & Owl Trust and Zoological Society of London, London.

Reeve, J., and D.M. Bird. 1993. Sexual size dimorphism and food requirements of nestling birds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:2541-2545.

Schaadt, C.P. and D.M. Bird. 1993. Sex-specific growth in Ospreys: the role of sexual size dimorphism. Auk 110:900-910.        pdf

Andison, M.E., J.G. Sivak, and D.M. Bird. 1992. The refractive development of the eye of the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius): a new avian model. Journal of Comparative Physiology 170:565-574.        pdf

Sivak, J.G., and D.M. Bird. 1992. The refractive development of the eye of the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius): a new avian model. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 170:565-574.

Telfer, E., B. Johns, M. Cadman, D.M. Bird, R. Bjorge, K. DeSmet, W. Harris, D. Hjertaas, P. Laporte, and R. Pittaway. 1992. The National Recovery Plan for Loggerhead Shrikes. RENEW.

Rau, M.E., and D.M. Bird. 1991. Trichinella pseudospiralis in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius): a model of parasite-induced behavioural pathology. Pp. 126-132 in M.K. Nicholls and R. Clarke (eds.), Biology and conservation of small falcons. Hawk and Owl Trust, London.

Brock, M.K., and D.M. Bird. 1991. Prefreeze and postthaw effects of glycerol and dimethylacetamide on motility and fertilizing ability of American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) spermatozoa. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 22:453-459.

Saumier, M.D., M.E. Rau, and D.M. Bird. 1991. Behavioural changes in breeding American Kestrels infected with Trichinella pseudospiralis. Oxford Ornithology Series 2:290-313.

Saumier, M., M.E. Rau, and D.M. Bird. 1991. Behaviour of breeding American Kestrels infected with Trichinella pseudospiralis. In J. Loye and M. Zuk (eds.), Bird-parasite interactions: ecology, evolution and behaviour. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Taylor, R.L., S.A. Temple, and D.M. Bird. 1991. Nutritional and energetic implications for raptors consuming starving prey. Auk 108:716-719.       pdf

Bird, D.M. 1987. Regional reports--Canada/East. Eyas 10:24-26.

Bakst, M.R., and D.M. Bird. 1987. Localization of oviductal sperm storage tubules in the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius). Auk 104:321-324.       pdf

Bird, D. 1987. Regional reports--Canada/East. Eyas 10:24-26.

Bird, D.M. 1987. Captive breeding: small falcons. Pp. 364-366 in B. Giron Pendleton, B.A. Millsap, K.W. Cline, and D.M. Birds (eds.), Raptor management techniques. National Wildlife Federation Scientific and Technical Series 10. National Wildlife Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Rehder, N.B., D.M. Bird, and L.M. Sanford. 1988. Plasma androgen levels and body weights for breeding and nonbreeding male American Kestrels. Condor 90:555-560.       pdf

Bird, D.M. 1987. Reproductive physiology. Pp. 276-282 in B. Giron Pendleton, B.A. Millsap, K.W. Cline, and D.M. Bird (eds.), Raptor management techniques manual. National Wildlife Federation Scientific and Technical Series no. 10. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C.

Bird, D. 1986. Regional reports--Canada/East. Eyas 9:18-19.

Bird, D. 1986. Regional reports--Canada/East. Eyas 9:21-23.

Rehder, N.B., D.M. Bird, and P.C. LaguŽ. 1986. Variations in plasma corticosterone estrone, estradiol 17‚, and progesterone concentrations with forced renesting, molt, and body weight of captive female American Kestrels. General and Comparative Endocrinology 62:386-393.

Bird, D. 1985. Regional report--Canada/East. Eyas 8:23-24.

Bird, D. 1985. Regional report--Canada/East. Eyas 8:24-25.

Shutt, L.J., and D.M. Bird. 1985. Influence of nestling experience on nest type selection in captive kestrels. Animal Behaviour 33:1028-1031.

Rehder, N.B., P.C. LaguŽ, and D.M. Bird. 1984. Simultaneous quantification of progesterone, estrone, estradiol-17‚ and corticosterone in female American Kestrel plasma. Steroids 43:371-83.

Rehder, N.B., and D.M. Bird. 1983. Annual profiles of blood packed cell volumes of captive American Kestrels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61:2550-2555.

Bider, J.R., and D.M. Bird. 1983. Distribution and densities of Osprey populations in the Great Whale region of Quebec. Pp. 223-230 in D.M. Bird (ed.), Biology and management of Bald eagles and Ospreys: Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on Bald Eagles and Ospreys Montreal, 28-29 October, 1981. Harpell Press, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Quebec.

Bird, D.M. 1982. Influence of forced renesting and hand rearing on growth of young captive American Kestrels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:89-96.

Bird, D.M. 1982. The American Kestrel as a laboratory research animal. Nature 299:300-301.

Bird, D.M., and Y. Aubry. 1982. Reproductive and hunting behaviour in Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, in southern Quebec. Canadian Field-Naturalist 96:167-171.

Bird, D.M. 1981. Some microbiological aspects of egg hatchability in captive American Kestrels. Pp. 45-48 in J.E. Cooper and A.G. Greenwood (eds.), Recent advances in the study of raptor diseases. Chiron Publications, West Yorkshire, England.

Bird, D.M. 1979. A report on peregrine breeding in southern Quebec, 1979-80. Tchebec Annual Report 1979:91-93.

Snyder, J.E., D.M. Bird, and P. C. LaguŽ. 1981. Variations in selected parameters in the blood of captive American Kestrels. Pp. 113-115 in J.E. Cooper and A.G. Greenwood (eds.), Recent advances in the study of raptor diseases. London Chiron Publications, Keighley, West Yorkshire, England.

Bird, D.M. 1978. The influence of forced renesting on reproductive parameters of captive American Kestrels. Ph.D. dissertation, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.

Bird, D.M. 1978. Land of the white falcon. Ontario Naturalist 17:24-29.

Bird, D.M. 1978. Falcons on the roof. Ontario Naturalist 17:12-14.

Bird, D.M. 1978. Birds of prey: a plea for ethics. Ontario Naturalist 17:16-23.

Bird, D.M. 1977. Hospital aid for Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus. Hawk Trust Annual Report 8:34-36.

Bird, D.M., and J.R. Bider. 1976. East coast of Hudson's Bay. In R.W. Fyfe, S.A. Temple, and T.J. Cade (eds.), The 1975 North American Peregrine Falcon Survey. Canadian Field-Naturalist 90:228-293.

Bird, D.M., and R.B. Buckland. 1976. The onset and duration of fertility in the American Kestrel. Canadian Journal of Zoology 54:1595-1597.

Bird, D.M., and S.K. Ho. 1976. Nutritive values of whole-animal diets for captive birds of prey. Raptor Research 10:45-49.       pdf

Bird, D.M., and P.C. LaguŽ. 1976. Management practices for captive kestrels used as semen donors for artificial insemination. Raptor Research 10:92-96.       pdf

Bird, D.M., and P.C. LaguŽ. 1976. Successful captive breeding of American Rough-legged Hawks. Raptor Research 10:1-8.       pdf

Bird, D.M., and P.C. LaguŽ. 1975. Treatment of bumblefoot by radiotherapy. Hawk Chalk 15:57-60.

Bird, D.M., W.A. Burnham, and R.W. Fyfe. 1985. A review of cross-fostering in birds of prey. Pp. 433-438 in I. Newton and R.D. Chancellor (eds.), Conservation studies on raptors. International Council for Bird Preservation Technical Publication No. 5. ICBP, Cambridge, England.

Bird, D.M., and D. Carriťre. 1983. [Can the Snowy Owl become the official bird of the province of Quebec?]. Les Carnets de Zoologie 43:4-6. (In French)

Bird, D.M., D. Carriere, and D. Lacombe. 1992. The effect of dietary sodium fluoride on internal organs, breast muscle, and bones in captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22:242-246.

Bird, D.M., D. Carriťre, and J.L. Shutt. 1989. Fluorosis in birds of prey. Pp. 465-467 in B.-U. Meyburg and R.D. Chancellor (eds.), Raptors in the modern world. World Working Group on Birds of Prey, Berlin, Germany.

Bird, D.M., and R.G. Clark. 1983. Growth of body components in parent- and hand-reared captive kestrels. Raptor Research 17:77-84.       pdf

Bird, D.M., J. Gauthier, and V. Monpetit. 1984. Embryonic growth of American Kestrels. Auk 101:392-396.       pdf

Bird, D.M., and C.J. Goldblatt. 1981. Influence of cross-fostering on mate selection in captive kestrels. Pp. 41-44 in J.E. Cooper and A.G. Greenwood (eds.), Recent advances in the study of raptor diseases. Chiron Publications, Keighley, West Yorkshire, England.

Bird, D.M., and H. Greenwood. 1981. Incidental trapping of American Kestrels in blackbird decoy traps. Raptor Research 15:31-32.        pdf

Bird, D.M., S.K. Ho, and D. Pare. 1982. Nutritive values of three common prey items of the American Kestrel. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 73A:513-515.

Bird, D.M., and P.C. LaguŽ. 1977. Semen production of the American Kestrel. Canadian Journal of Zoology 55:1351-1358.

Bird, D.M., and P.C. LaguŽ. 1982. Fertility, egg weight loss, hatchability, and fledging success in replacement clutches of captive American Kestrels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:80-88.

Bird, D.M., and P.C. LaguŽ. 1982. Influence of forced renesting, seasonal date of laying, and female characteristics on clutch size and egg traits in captive American Kestrels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:71-79.

Bird, D.M., P.C. LaguŽ, and R.B. Buckland. 1976. Artificial insemination vs. natural mating in captive American Kestrels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 54:1183-1191.

Bird, D.M., P.C. LaguŽ, and R.B. Buckland. 1977. Artificial insemination and semen production of the American Kestrel. Pp. 347-348 in R.D. Chancellor (ed.), World conference on birds of prey, Vienna, 1-3 October, 1975. International Council for Bird Preservation, London.

Bird, D.M., and S. Spiegel. 1975. Unusual food transfer behavior performed by American Kestrels. Canadian Field-Naturalist 89:325-326.

Bird, D.M., and C. Massari. 1983. Effects of dietary sodium fluoride on bone fluoride levels and reproductive performance of captive American Kestrels. Environmental Pollution Series A Ecological and Biological 31:67-76.

Bird, D.M., D.B. Peakall, and D.S. Miller. 1983. Enzymatic changes in the oviduct associated with DDE induced eggshell thinning in the kestrel, Falco sparverius. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 31:22-24.       pdf

Bird, D.M., and N.B. Rehder. 1981. The science of captive breeding of falcons. Avicultural Magazine 87:208-212.

Bird, D.M., I. Ritchie, J.D. Weaver, and R. Bowman. 1990. Impact of forced renesting on reproductive success in Ungava Bay Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:219-221.

Bird, D.M., and S. Tinker. 1982. Egg laying in a twenty-eight year old Golden Eagle. Raptor Research 16:58-59.       pdf

Bird, D.M., P.H. Tucker, G.A. Fox, and P.C. LaguŽ. 1983. Synergistic effects of Aroclor 1254 and Mirex on the semen characteristics of American Kestrels. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 12:633-640.       pdf

Bird, D.M., and J.D. Weaver. 1981. Peregrine Falcon populations in Ungava Bay Region. Macdonald Raptor Research Centre of McGill University, Research Report 1:24.

Bird, D.M., and J.D. Weaver. 1988. Peregrine Falcon populations in Ungava Bay, Quebec, 1980-1985. Pp. 45-50 in T.J. Cade, J.H. Enderson, C.G. Thelander, and C.M. White (eds.), Peregrine Falcon populations: their management and recovery The Peregrine Fund, Inc., Boise, ID.

Bird, D.M., P.G. Weil, and P.C. Lague. 1980. Photoperiodic induction of multiple breeding seasons in captive American Kestrels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 58:1022-1026.

Bird, D.M., and J. Wright. 1977. Apparent distraction display by a Barred Owl. Canadian Field-Naturalist 91:176-177.

Bisson, I.A., M. Ferrer, and D.M. Bird. 2002. Factors influencing nest-site selection by Spanish Imperial Eagles. Journal of Field Ornithology 73:298-302.

Bortolotti, G.R., J.J. Negro, J.L. Tella, and D.M. Bird. 1996. Sexual dichromatism in birds independent of diet, parasites, and androgens. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences 263:1171-1176.

Bowman, R., J.R. Duncan, and D.M. Bird. 1987. Dispersal in inbreeding avoidance in the American Kestrel: are they related? Raptor Research Report 6:145-150.

Bowman, R., and D.M. Bird. 1987. Behavioral strategies of American Kestrels during mate replacement. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 20:129-135.

Bowman, R., and D.M. Bird. 1985. Reproductive performance of American Kestrels laying replacement clutches. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:2590-2593.

Bowman, R., and D.M. Bird. 1986. Ecological correlates of mate replacement in the American Kestrel. Condor 88:440-445.       pdf

Bowman, R., and D.M. Bird. 1987. Behavioral strategies of American Kestrels during mate replacement. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 20:129-135.

Brock, M.K., D.M. Bird, and G.A. Ansah. 1984. Cryogenic preservation of spermatozoa of the American Kestrel Falco sparverius. International Zoo Yearbook 23:67-71.

Bowman, R., J. Duncan, and D.M. Bird. 1987. Dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in American Kestrels: are they related? Pp. 145-150 in D.M. Bird and R. Bowman (eds.), The ancestral kestrel. Raptor Research Foundation Inc. and Macdonald Raptor Research Centre, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.

Brodeur, S., R. Decarie, D.M. Bird, and M. Fuller. 1996. Complete migration cycle of Golden Eagles breeding in northern Quebec. Condor 98:293-299.        pdf

Brodeur, S., F. Morneau, R. Decarie, J.J. Negro, and D.M. Bird. 1994. Breeding density and productivity of Rough-legged Hawks in northwestern Quťbec. Journal Raptor Research 28:259-262.        pdf

Cade, T.J., and D.M. Bird. 1990. Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, nesting in an urban environment: a review. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:209-218.

Carriere, D., D.M. Bird, and J.W. Stamm. 1987. Influence of a diet of fluoride-fed cockerels on reproductive performance of captive American Kestrels. Environmental Pollution 46:151-159.

Chabot, A.A., R.D. Titman, and D.M. Bird. 1995. Habitat selection and breeding biology of Loggerhead Shrikes in Eastern Ontario and Quťbec. In R. Yosef and F.E. Lohrer (eds.), Shrikes (Laniidae) of the world: Biology and Conservation. Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology 6(1):155-156.

Chabot, A.A., D.M. Bird, and R.D. Titman. 2001. Breeding biology and nesting success of Loggerhead Shrikes in Ontario. Wilson Bulletin 113:285-289.

Chabot, A.A., R.D. Titman, and D.M. Bird. 2001. Habitat selection of Loggerhead Shrikes in Ontario and Quebec. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:916-925.

Dottlinger, H., and D.M. Bird. 1995. Haematological parameters in captive Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus). Falco 1995(4):2-7.

Clark, R.G., and D.M. Bird. 1985. Assessing public attitudes toward birds of prey and raptor research activities. Birds of Prey Bulletin 2:130-140.

Coleman, J.L., D.M. Bird, and E.A. Jacobs. 2002. Nest habitat use and productivity of Sharp-shinned Hawks nesting in an urban area. Wilson Bulletin 114:467-473.

Curley, E.M., R. Bowman, and D.M. Bird. 1987. Nest site characteristics of boxes occupied by starlings and kestrels. Raptor Research Report 6:160-164.

Donehower, C.E. and D.M. Bird. 2005. A method for color-marking birds at resting sites. Journal of Field Ornithology 76:204-207.       pdf

Donehower, C.E., Bird, D.M., C.S. Hall, and S.W. Kress. 2007. Effects of gull predation and predator contgrol on tern ensting success at Eastern Egg Rock, Maine. Waterbirds 30:29-39.       pdf

Drouillard, K.G., K.J. Fernie, J.E. Smits, G.R. Bortolotti, D.M. Bird, and R.J. Norstrom. 2001. Bioaccumulation and toxicokinetics of 42 PCB congeners in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:2514-2522.

Duke, G.E., J. Reynhout, A.L. Tereick, A.E. Place, and D.M. Bird. 1997. Gastrointestinal morphology and motility in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) receiving high or low fat diets. Condor 99:123-131.        pdf

Duke, G.E., A.L. Tereick, J.K. Reynhout, D.M. Bird, and A.E. Place. 1996. Variability among individual American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) in parts of day-old chicks eaten, pellet size, and pellet egestion frequency. Journal of Raptor Research 30: 213-218.        pdf

Duncan, J.R., and D.M. Bird. 1989. The influence of relatedness and display effort on the mate choice of captive female American Kestrels. Animal Behaviour 37:112-117.

Fernie, K. J., and D.M. Bird. 1999. Effects of electromagnetic fields on body mass and food intake of American Kestrels. Condor 101:616-621.       pdf

Fernie, K.J., and D.M. Bird. 2000. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the growth of nestling American Kestrels. Condor 102:461-465.       pdf

Fernie, K.J., and D.M. Bird. 2001. Evidence of oxidative stress in American Kestrels exposed to electromagnetic fields. Environmental Research 86:198-207.

Fernie, K.J., D.M. Bird, R.D. Dawson, and P.C. LaguŽ. 2000. Effects of electromagnetic fields on reproductive success of American Kestrels. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 73:60-65.

Fernie, K.J., J.E. Smits, G.R. Bortolotti, and D.M. Bird. 2001. In ovo exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: reproductive effects on second-generation American Kestrels. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40:544-550.       pdf

Fernie, K., L. Shutt, D. Bird, R. Letcher, J. Smits, and G. Bortolotti. 2005. (Abstract) The effects of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers on reproductive performance and immune function in captive American Kestrels. P. 92 in R. Schodde, S. Hannon, G. Scheiffarth, and F. Bairlein (eds.), Abstracts of the XXIV International Ornithological Congress, Hamburg, Germany.

Fernie, K., L. Shutt, R.J. Letcher, K. Drouillard, and D.M. Bird. 2004. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: an emerging threat to raptors. In P. Soorae (ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd Africa and Middle East Section, Wildlife Disease Association Meeting, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, December 10-13, 2004. [CD-ROM]

Fernie, K.J., J.E. Smits, G.R. Bortolotti, and D.M. Bird. 2001. Reproductive success of American Kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:776-781.

Fernie, K.J., J.L. Shutt, R.J. Letcher, I.J. Ritchie, and D.M. Bird. 2009. Environmentally relevant concentrations of DE-71 and HBCD alter eggshell thickness and reproductive success of American Kestrels. Environmental Science & Technology 43:2124-2130.

Fernie, K.J., G.R. Bortolotti, J.E. Smits, J. Wilson, K.G. Drouillard, and D.M. Bird. 2000. Changes in egg composition of American Kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 60:291-303.

Fernie, K.J., L. Shutt, I.J Ritchie, R.J. Letcher, K. Drouillard, and D.M. Bird. 2006. Changes in the growth, but not the survival of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 69:1541-1554.

Fernie, K.J., D.M. Bird, and D. Petitclerc. 1999. Effects of electromagnetic fields on photophasic circulating melatonin levels in American Kestrels. Environmental Health Perspectives 107:901-904.       pdf

Fernie, K.J., N.J. Leonard, and D.M. Bird. 2000. Behavior or free-ranging and captive American Kestrels under electromagnetic fields. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 59:101-107.

Fisher, S.A., G.R. Bortolotti, K.J. Fernie, D.M. Bird, and J.E. Smits. 2006. Behavioral variation and its consequences during incubation for American kestrels exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 63(2):226-235.

Frost, B.J., L.Z. Wise, B. Morgan, and D. Bird. 1990. Retinotopic representation of the bifoveate eye of the kestrel (Falco sparverius) on the optic tectum. Visual Neuroscience 5:231-239.

Fisher, S.A., G.R. Bortolotti, K.J. Fernie, D.M. Bird, and J.D. Smits. 2006. Brood patches of American Kestrels altered by experimental exposure to PCBs. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 69:1-11.       pdf

Fisher, S.A., G.R. Bortolotti, K.J. Fernie, J.E. Smits, T.E. Marchant, K. Drouillard, and D.M. Bird. 2001. Courtship behavior of captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 41: 215-220.       pdf

Gard, N.W., and D.M. Bird. 1990. Breeding behavior of American Kestrels raising manipulated brood sizes in years of varying prey abundance. Wilson Bulletin 102:605-614.       pdf

Gard, N.W., and D.M. Bird. 1992. Nestling growth and fledging success in manipulated American Kestrel broods. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:2421-2425.

Gard, N.W., and D.M. Bird. 1992. Utilization des rapaces en lutte biologique. In C. Vincent and D. Coderre (eds.), Principes et applications de la lutte biologique. Gaetan Morin Editeur, Boucherville, Quebec., Canada. (In French)

Gard, N.W., D.M. Bird, R. Densmore, and M. Hamel. 1989. Responses of breeding American Kestrels to live and mounted Great Horned Owls. Journal of Raptor Research 23:99-102.       pdf

Gauthier, J., D.M. Bird, and K.F. Ng Kwai Hang. 1983. Plasma protein patterns in captive American Kestrels. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 75A:163-166.

Giron Pendleton, B., B.A. Millsap, K.W. Cline, and D.M. Bird (eds.). 1987. Raptor techniques manual. National Wildlife Federation Scientific and Technical Series no. 10. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C.

Garland, H., A. del Peral, D.M. Bird, and M.-A. Fortin. 2009. High frequency of American Kestrel strikes at Montreal-Trudeau International Airport: a case study. Journal of Raptor Research 43:382-383.       pdf

Harnal, V.K., R. Spindler, S.L. Montfort, B. Pukazhenthi, D.M. Bird, and D.W. Wildt. 2001. Sperm capacitation in vitro in the Eldís deer. Theriogenology 56:399-413.

Harnal, V.K., D.E. Wildt, D.M. Bird, S.L. Montfort, and J.D. Ballou. 2002.Computer simulations to determine the efficacy of different genome resource banking strategies for maintaining genetic diversity. Cryobiology 44: 122-131.

Henderson, D., D.M. Bird, M.E. Rau, and J.J. Negro. 1995. Mate choice in captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) parasitized by a nematode (Trichinella pseuodspiralis). Ethology 101:112-120.

Hudson, M-A.R. and D.M. Bird. 2006. An affordable computerized camera technique for monitoring bird nests. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:1455-1457.

Hunt, K.E., D.M. Bird, P. Mineau and L. Shutt. 1991. Secondary poisoning hazard of fenthion to American Kestrels. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 21:84-91.

Hunt, K.E., D.M. Bird, P. Mineau, and L. Shutt. 1992. Selective predation of fenthion-exposed prey by American Kestrels. Animal Behaviour 43:971-976.

Lacombe, D., D.M. Bird, and K. Hibbard. 1995. Influence of reduced food availability on growth of captive American Kestrels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:2084-2089.

Lavigne, A., D.M. Bird, J.J. Negro, and D. Lacombe. 1994. Growth of hand-reared American Kestrels. I. The effect of two different diets and feeding frequency. Growth, Development and Aging 58:191-201.

Lacombe, D., D.M. Bird, C.G. Scanes, and K.H. Hibbard. 1993. The effect of restricted feeding on plasma growth hormone (GH) concentrations in growing American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Condor 95:559-567.        pdf

Love, O.P., L.J. Shutt, J.S. Silfies, G.R. Bortolotti, J.E.G. Smits, and D.M. Bird. 2003. Effects of dietary PCB exposure on adrenocortical function in captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Ecotoxicology 12:199-208.

Love, O.P., D.M. Bird, and L.J. Shutt. 2003. Plasma corticosterone in captive sibling American Kestrels: effects of age, hatching order and hatching asynchrony. Hormones and Behavior 43:480-488.

Lacina, D., and D.M. Bird. 2000. Endoparasites of raptors: a review and an update. Pp. 65-100 in J.T. Lumei, J.D. Remple, P.T. Redig, M. Lierz, and J.E. Cooper, (eds.), Raptor Biomedicine III. Zoological Education Network, Inc.

Lacombe, D., D.M. Bird, C.G. Scanes, and K.A. Hibbard. 1993. Plasma growth hormone levels in nestling American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Pp. 90-95 in M. Nicholls and R. Clark (eds.), Biology and Conservation of Small Falcons. The Hawk and Owl Trust, London, UK.

Love, O.P., and D.M. Bird. 2000. Raptors in urban landscape: a review and future concerns. Pp. 425-434 in R.D. Chancellor and B.-U. Meyburg (eds.), Raptors at risk. World Working Group on Birds of Prey, Berlin and Hancock House, Blaine, WA.

Lett, D.W., and D.M. Bird. 1987. Postfledging behavior of American Kestrels in southwestern Quebec. Wilson Bulletin 99:77-82.       pdf

Lavigne, A., D.M. Bird, J.J. Negro, and D. Lacombe. 1994. Growth of hand-reared American Kestrels. II. Body composition and wingloading in fledglings hand-fed two different diets. Growth, Development and Aging 58:203-209.

Love, O.P. and D.M. Bird. 2000. Raptors in urban landscapes: a review and future concerns. Pp. 425-434 in R.D. Chancellor and B-U. Meyburg (eds.), Raptors at Risk. World Working Group on Birds of Prey, Berlin, and Hancock House, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada.

MacLellan, K.M., D.M. Bird, D.M. Fry, and L. Shutt. 1997. Behavior of captive American Kestrels hatched from o,p'-dicofol-exposed females. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32: 411-415.

MacLellan, K.N.M., D.M. Bird, D.M. Fry, and J. Cowles. 1996. Reproductive and morphological effects of o,p'-Dicofol on two generations of captive American Kestrels. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 30:364-372.

Morris, M.M.J., B.L. Penak, R.E. Lemon, and D.M. Bird. 1982. Characteristics of Red-shouldered Hawk, Buteo lineatus, nest sites in southwestern Quebec. Canadian Field-Naturalist 96:139-142.

Muir, D., and D.M. Bird. 1984. Food of Gyrfalcons at a nest on Ellesmere Island. Wilson Bulletin 96:464-467.       pdf

Maloney, P.J., G.F. Bennett, D.M. Bird, and D.J. Lewis. 1984. Haemoproteus tinnunculus in the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 20:57-58.       pdf

Meerovitch, E., K. Chadee, and D.M. Bird. 1982. Experimental infection of American Kestrels, Falco sparverius, with Trichinella pseudospiralis Garkavi, 1972, and T. spiralis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:3150-3152.

Morneau, F., S. Brodeur, R. Decarie, S. Carriere, and D.M. Bird. 1994. Abundance and distribution of Golden Eagles in Hudson Bay, Quebec. Journal of Raptor Research 28:220-225.        pdf

Negro, J.J., K. Bildstein, and D.M. Bird. 1994. Effects of food deprivation and handling stress on fault-bar formation in nestling American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Ardea 82:263-267.

Negro, J.J., G.R. Bortolotti, J.L. Tella, K.J. Fernie, and D.M. Bird. 1998. Regulation of integumentary colour and plasma carotenoids in American Kestrels consistent with sexual selection theory. Functional Ecology 12:307-312.       pdf

Saumier, M.D., M.E. Rau, and D.M. Bird. 1986. The effect of Trichinella pseudospiralis infection on the reproductive success of captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:2123-2125.

Saumier, M.D., M.E. Rau, and D.M. Bird. 1988. The influence of Trichinella pseudospiralis infection on the behaviour of captive, nonbreeding American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Canadian Journal of Zoology 66:1685-1692.

Schwarzbach, S.E., D.M. Fry, B.E. Rosson, and D.M. Bird. 1991. Metabolism and storage of p,p-1-dicofol in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) with comparisons to Ring-neck Doves (Streptopelia risoria). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 20:206-210.

Bird, D.M. 1988. Regional reports--Canada/East. Eyas 11:18-19.

Bird, D.M. 1988. American Kestrel. Pp. 253-290 in R.S. Palmer (ed.), Handbook of North American Birds, Volume 5, Diurnal Raptors (Part 2). Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Radvanyi, A., P. Weaver, C. Massari, D. Bird, and E. Broughton. 1988. Effects of chlorophacinone on captive kestrels. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 41:441-448.

Bird, D. 1984. Regional reports--Canada/East. Eyas 7:24-25.

Bird, D. 1985. Regional report--Canada/East. Eyas 8:16-17.

Bird, D. 1984. Regional report--Canada/East. Eyas 7:31-32.

Sobkowiak, S.T., and D.M. Bird. 1984. A portable candler for determining fertility and development of birds eggs. Journal of Field Ornithology 55:257-258.       pdf

Bird, D.M. 1985. Evaluation of the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) as a laboratory research animal. Pp. 3-9 in J. Archibald, J. Ditchfield, and H.C. Rowsell (eds.), The contribution of laboratory animal ccience to the welfare of man and animals. 8th ICLAS/CALAS Symposium, Vancouver, British Columbia, 1983. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.

Rehder, N.B., D.M. Bird, P.C. LaguŽ, and C. Mackay. 1982. Variation in selected hematological parameters of captive Red-tailed Hawks. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 18:105-109.       pdf

Rehder, N.B., D.M. Bird, and P.C. LaguŽ. 1982. Variations in blood packed cell volume of captive American Kestrels. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 72A:105-109.



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