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Gary Santolo

Gary Santolo


Since 1988 I have been a biologist for CH2M HILL in Sacramento, where I work as a wildlife biologist and toxicologist collecting biological samples for contaminant studies and Ecological Risk Assessments. I also prepare biological assessments for endangered species and develop mitigation plans for Section 7 and 10(a) under the Endangered Species Act. I specializes in bird and mammal trapping, biological monitoring, and endangered species surveys. My research has focused on the effects of selenium to wildlife, especially reproductive effects, and I have designed and implemented several field and laboratory studies of reproductive effects of selenium on American kestrels.

2485 Natomas Park Drive  Suite 600
Sacramento,  CA  95833  United States
Phone: 916-286-0283 Fax: 916-614-3483
Email: gsantolo@ch2m.com

   Research Interests

Contaminant effects on birds
Selenium effects on birds

Species of Interest: 
  • American Kestrel
  • Barn Owl
  • Loggerhead Shrike


Santolo, G. M., E. R. Byron, and H. M. Ohlendorf. 2016. Contaminants in sediment, food-chain biota, and bird eggs from the Newport Bay watershed, Orange County, California. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 188:113-131.

Santolo, G. M. 2013. Weights and Measurements for American Kestrels, Barn Owls, and Loggerhead Shrikes in California. North American Bird Bander 38:161-162.

Santolo, G. M., J. T. Yamamoto, P. Nieberg, and B. W. Wilson. 2010. Selenium accumulation in coturnix quail fed seleno-L-methionine. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29:2220-2224.

Santolo, G. M. 2009. Small mammals collected from a site with elevated selenium concentrations and three reference sites. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 57:741-754.

Santolo, G.M., and J.T. Yamamoto. 2009. Nest box and site use by, and selenium concentrations in, American Kestrels at Kesterson Reservoir, central California. Journal of Raptor Research 43:315-324.        pdf

Santolo, G. M. 2007. Selenium accumulation in European starlings nesting in a selenium-contaminated environment. Condor 109:863-870.

Byron, E. R., H. M. Ohlendorf, G. M. Santolo, S. M. Benson, P. T. Zawislanski, T. K. Tokunaga, and M. Delamore. 2003. Ecological Risk Assessment Example: Water and Shorebirds Feeding in Ephemeral Pools at Kesterson Reservoir, California. Pages 985-1014 in D. J. Hoffman, B. A. Rattner, J. G.A. Burton, and J. J. Cairns, editors. Handbook of Ecotoxicology. Lewis Publishers, New York.

Pisenti, J.M., G.M. Santolo, J.T. Yamamoto, and A.A. Morzenti. 2001. Embryonic development of the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius): external criteria for staging. Journal of Raptor Research 35:194-206.

Yamamoto, J.T., and G.M. Santolo. 2000. Body condition effects in American Kestrels fed selenomethionine. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 36:646-652.

Santolo, G.M., and J.T. Yamamoto. 1999. Selenium in blood of predatory birds from Kesterson Reservoir and other areas in California. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:1273-1281.

Santolo, G.M., J.T. Yamamoto, J.M. Pisenti, and B.W. Wilson. 1999. Selenium accumulation and effects on reproduction in captive American Kestrels fed selenomethionine. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:502-511.

Yamamoto, J. T., G. M. Santolo, and B. W. Wilson. 1998. American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed selenomethionine and naturally incorporated selenium. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:2494-2497.

Yamamoto, J.T., G.M. Santolo, and B.W. Wilson. 1998. Selenium accumulation in captive American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed selenomethionine and naturally incorporated selenium. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:2494-2497.

Santolo, G.M., and P.J. Detrich. 1995. (Abstract) Relationship of water level to Bald Eagle reproduction at Shasta Reservoir, California. Journal of Raptor Research 29:72.

Ohlendorf, H. M. and G. M. Santolo. 1994. Kesterson Reservoir-Past, Present, and Future: An Ecological Risk Assessment. Pages 69-117 in W.T. Frankenberger Jr., and S. Benson, editors. Selenium in the Environment. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Santolo, G. M. 1994. Ecological risk assessment for Kesterson Reservoir, Merced County, California. M. S. Thesis. University of California Davis.

Wahl, C., S. Benson, and G. Santolo. 1994. Temporal and spatial monitoring of soil selenium at Kesterson Reservoir, California. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 74:345-361.

Fry, D.M., G. Santolo, and C.R. Grau. 1986. Effects of 1080 poison on Turkey Vultures. Report to California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. 42 pp.

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