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Michael Fry

Michael Fry


Michael Fry is an avian ecologist and toxicologist whose work over the past 30 years has focused on the effects of pesticides, other contaminants, and oil spills on wild birds.
He received his PhD in Physiology from the University of California, Davis, in 1971, and has had held postdoctoral research and teaching positions at Melbourne University, Australia, the Cardiovascular Research Institute at University of California, San Francisco, and the Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of the Pacific, San Francisco. He was on the faculty of the Department of Avian Sciences at UC Davis for 23 years before joining American Bird Conservancy in 2005. He is the author of over 50 scientific publications and joint author of 10 books and book chapters.
Dr. Fry was the Director of Conservation Advocacy at American Bird Conservancy from 2005 to 2011 and was ABCís chief scientist. He is currently the Environmental Contaminants Specialist for the Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Service Office in Honolulu, Hawaii.
He has served as a toxicological expert for the United States on the Exxon Valdez oil spill, the Persian Gulf oil spill, and several other oil spills. He was an expert in the litigation over DDT contamination in Southern California by Montrose Chemical Company.
Dr. Fry served 12 years as an appointee to the US Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Advisory Committee and Chairman of the committee for 4 years. Dr Fry was an appointee to the US EPA Federal Advisory Committee: Pesticide Program Dialog Committee from 2005 to 2011.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Environmental Contaminants, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office  300 Ala Moana Blvd. Rm 3-122
Honolulu,  HI  96850  United States
Phone: 808-792-9461 Fax: 808-792-9581
Email: michael_fry@fws.gov

   Research Interests

No notes have been entered at this time.

Species of Interest: 
  • Turkey Vulture
  • California Condor
  • White-tailed Kite
  • Northern Goshawk
  • Red-tailed Hawk
  • Swainson's Hawk
  • American Kestrel
  • Burrowing Owl


Piorkowski, M.D., A.J. Farnsworth, M. Fry, R.W. Rohrbaugh, J.W. Fitzpatrick, and K.V. Rosenberg. 2012. Research priorities for wind energy and migratory wildlife. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:451-456.

Walters, J.R., S.R. Derrickson, D.M. Fry, S.M. Haig, J.M. Marzluff, and J.M. Wunderle, Jr. 2010. Status of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and efforts to achieve its recovery. Auk 127:969-1001.

Fry, M., K. Sorenson, J. Grantham, J. Burnett, J. Brandt, and M. Koenig. 2009 Lead intoxication kinetics in condors from California. P. 266 in R.T. Watson, M. Fuller, M. Pokras, and W.G. Hunt (eds), Ingestion of lead from spent ammunition: implications for wildlife and humans. The Peregrine Fund, Boise Idaho, USA.

Fry, M. 2008 Reducing rodenticide hazards to humans and wildlife: the need for use regulations. In D.L. Nolte, W.M. Arjo, D.H. Stalman (eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Wildlife Damage Management Conference, April 9-12, 2007.

Fergus, R., M. Fry, W.M. Karesh, P.P. Marra, S. Newman, and E. Paul. 2006. Migratory birds and avian flu. Science 312:845.

Keane, J.J., M.L. Morrison, and D.M. Fry. 2006. Prey and weather factors associated with temporal variation in Northern Goshawk reproduction in the Sierra Nevada, California. Pp. 85-99 in M.L. Morrison (ed.), The Northern Goshawk: a technical assessment of its status, ecology, and management. Cooper Ornithological Society, Ephrata, PA.

Fry, D.M. 2004. Final report addendum: analysis of lead in California Condor feathers: determination of exposure and depuration during feather growth. California Department of Fish and Game, Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, Species Conservation and Recovery Program Report 2004-02. California Department of Fish and Game.

Fry, D.M. 2004. Analysis of lead in California Condors feathers: determination of exposure and depuration during feather growth: final report addendum. Report to California Department of Fish and Game, Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, Species Conservation and Recovery Program Report 2004-02. 18 pp.

Fry, D.M. 2003. Assessment of lead contamination sources exposing California Condors: final report. California Department of Fish and Game Species Conservation and Recovery Report 2003-02. 85 pp.

Quaglino, A.E., C.B. Craig-Veit, M.R. Viant, A.L. Erichsen, D.M. Fry, and J.R. Millam. 2002. Oral estrogen masculinizes female zebra finch song system. Hormones and Behavior 41:236-241.

Millam J.R., C.B. Craig-Veit, A.E. Quaglino, A.L. Erichsen, T.R. Famula, and D.M. Fry. 2001. Post-hatch oral estrogen exposure impairs adult reproductive performance of Zebra Finch in a sex-specific manner. Hormones and Behavior 40:542-549.

Fry, D.M. 2000. Die Wirkung von Xenoestrogenen auf Vogelpopulationen. In M. Schlumpf and W. Lichtensteiger (eds.), Hormonaktive Chemikalien. Verlag Hans Huber, Bern, Switzerland. (In German)

Fry, D.M., L. Hayes. P.K. Robbins, L.A. Herrenstein, M.S. Denison, M. Zicardi, and C.E. Orazio. 2000. Dioxin exposure and effects assessment of Red-Tailed tropicbirds nesting on Johnston Island, Central Pacific Ocean. Organohologen Compounds 49:430-433.

Gervais, J.A., D.K. Rosenberg, D.M. Fry, L. Trulio, and K.K. Sturm. 2000. Burrowing Owls and agricultural pesticides: evaluation of residues and risks for three populations in California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:2:337-343.

Viant, M.R., J.R. Millam, M.E. Delany, and D.M. Fry. 2000. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA levels in avian hypothalamic slice cultures. Neuroscience 99:373-380.

Committee on Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (E. Knobil, H.A. Bern, J. Burger, D.M. Fry, J.P. Giesy, J. Gorski, C.J. Grossman, L.J. Guilette, B.S. Hulka, J.C. Lamb, L.A. Real, S.H. Safe, A.M. Soto, J.J. Stegeman, S.H. Swan, and F.S. vom Saal). 1999. Hormonally active agents in the Environment. National Research Council, Commission on Life Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Ankley, G., E. Mihaich, R. Stahl, D. Tillitt, T. Colborn, S. Mcmaster, R. Miller, J. Bantle, P. Campbell, N. Denslow, R. Dickerson, L. Folmar, M. Fry, J. Giesy, L.E. Gray, P. Guiney, T. Hutchinson, S. Kennedy, V. Kramer, G. Leblanc, M. Mayes, A. Nimrod, R. Patino, R. Peterson, R. Purdy, R. Ringer, P. Thomas, L. Touart, G. van der Kraak, and T. Zacharewski. 1998. Overview of a workshop on screening methods for detecting potential (anti-) estrogenic/androgenic chemicals in wildlife. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:68 87.

Fry, D.M., B.W. Wilson, N.D. Ottum, J.T. Yamamoto, R.W. Stein, J.N. Seiber, M.M. McChesney, and E. Richardson. 1998. Radiotelemetry and GIS computer modeling as tools for analysis of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in Red-tailed Hawks. Pp. 67-83 in L. Brewer and K. Fagerstone (eds.), Radiotelemetry applications for wildlife: toxicology field studies. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL,

Hart, C.A., M.E. Hahn, I.C.T. Nisbet, M.J. Moore, S.W. Kennedy, and D.M. Fry. 1998. Feminization in Common Terns (Sterna hirundo): relationship to dioxin equivalents and estrogenic compounds, Marine Environmental Research 46:174-175.

Johnson, M.L., A. Salveson, L. Holmes, M.S. Denison, and D.M. Fry. 1998. Environmental estrogens in agricultural drain water from the Central Valley of California. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 60:609-614.

Stein, R.W., J.T. Yamamoto, D.M. Fry, and B.W. Wilson. 1998. Comparative hematology and plasma biochemistry of Red-tailed Hawks and American Kestrels wintering in California. Journal of Raptor Research 32:163-169.

Davis, J.A., D.M. Fry, and B.W. Wilson. 1997. Field application of fluorescence-based catalytic assays for measuring Cytochrome P450 induction in birds. Pp. 169-179 in Biomarkers for agrochemicals and toxic substances. ACS Symposium Series, Washington, D.C.

Davis, J.A., D.M. Fry, and B.W. Wilson. 1997. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and inducibility in wild populations of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16:1441-1449.

Gervais, J.A., D.K. Rosenberg, D.M. Fry, and L.A. Trulio. 1997. Evaluation of contaminant residues in Burrowing Owl populations from central and southern California: final report, September 1997. Institute for Bird Populations Publication 79:1-20.

MacLellan, K.N.M., D.M. Bird, L.J. Shutt, and D.M. Fry. 1997. Behavior of captive American Kestrels hatched from o,p'-Dicofol exposed females. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32:411-415.

Anderson, D.W., F. Gress, and D.M. Fry. 1996. Survival and dispersal of oiled brown pelicans after rehabilitation and release. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32:711-718.

Davis, J.A., D.M. Fry, and B.W. Wilson. 1996. Field application of fluorescence-based catalytic assays for measuring Cytochrome P450 induction in birds. Chapter 13 in J.N. Blancato, R.N. Brown, C.C. Dary, and M.A. Saleh (eds.), Biomarkers for agrochemicals and toxic substances. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.

Erichsen, A.L., S.K. Smallwood, A.M. Commandatore, B.W. Wilson, and M.D. Fry. 1996. White-tailed Kite movement and nesting patterns in an agricultural landscape. Pp. 165-176 in D.M. Bird, D.E. Varland, and J.J. Negro (eds.), Raptors in human landscapes: adaptations to built and cultivated environments. Academic Press, London.

Fry, D.M. 1996. Vulnerability of avian populations to environmental pollutants. Comments in Toxicology 5:401-414.

MacLellan, K.N.M., D.M. Bird, D.M. Fry, and J.L. Cowles. 1996. Reproductive and morphological effects of o,p'-dicofol on two generations of captive American Kestrels. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 30:364-372.

Nisbet, I.C.T., D.M. Fry, J.J. Hatch, and B. Lynn. 1996. Feminization of male Common Tern embryos is not correlated with exposure to specific PCB congeners. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 57:895-901.

Yamamoto, J.T., R.M. Donohoe, D.M. Fry, M.S. Golub, and J.M. Donald. 1996. Environmental estrogens: implications for reproduction in wildlife. In A. Fairbrother, L.N. Locke, and G.L. Hoff (eds.), Noninfectious diseases in wildlife, 2nd Edition. Iowa State Press, Ames, IA.

Bantle, J., W.W. Bowerman, C. Carey, T. Colborn, S. Deguise, S. Dodson, C.F. Facemire, G. Fox, M. Fry, M. Gilbertson, K. Grasman, T. Gross, L. Guillette, C. Henny, D.S. Henshel, J.E. Hose, P.A. Klein, T.J. Kubiak, G. Lahvis, B. Palmer, C. Peterson, M. Ramsay, and D. White. 1995. Statement from the work session on environmentally-induced alterations in development ó z focus on wildlife. Environmental Health Perspectives 103:3-5.

Davis, J.A., D.M. Fry, and B.M. Wilson. 1995. Fluorescence-based catalytic assays for measuring Cytochrome-P-450 induction in birds. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 209:105-AGRO.

Fry, D.M. 1995. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives 103:165-171.

Fry, D.M. 1995. (Abstract) Overview of Swainson's Hawk population status and natural history. Journal of Raptor Research 29:50.

Erichsen, A.L., A.M. Commandatore, and D.M. Fry. 1995. (Abstract) Communal roosts: seasonal dynamics of a White-tailed Kite population in the Sacramento Valley, California. Journal of Raptor Research 29:70.

Wilson, B.W., J.E. Billitti, M. David, B.L. Lasley, D.M. Fry, and J.N. Seiber. 1995. Impact of organophosphates on ecosystems. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 209:119-AGRO.

Erichsen, A.L., S. Smallwood, N.D. Ottum, and D.M. Fry. 1994. (Abstract) The White-tailed Kite: GIS analysis of habitat selection in the Sacramento Valley, California with implications for conservation of wildlife in agricultural landscapes. Journal of Raptor Research 28:46.

Henderson, J.D., J.T. Yamamoto, D.M. Fry, J.N. Seiber, and B.W. Wilson. 1994. Oral and dermal toxicity of organophosphate pesticides in the Domestic Pigeon (Columbia livia). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 52:633-640.

Wilson, B.W., J.D. Henderson, W.E. Steinke, D.M. Fry, R. Coviello, W.K. Asai, F.G. Zalom, and J.N. Seiber. 1994. Minimizing environmental hazards during dormant spraying of orchards in the Central Valley of California. In Proceedings of Second National Integrated Pest Management Symposium, April 19-22.

Burger, A.E. and D.M. Fry. 1993. Effects of oil pollution on seabirds of the temperate North Pacific. Pp. 234-263 in K. Vermeer, K. Briggs, K. Morgan, and D. Siegle Causey (eds.), Status, ecology and conservation of marine birds of the North Pacific. Canadian Wildlife Service Special Publication, Ottawa, Montreal, Canada.

Fry, D.M. 1993. The rest of the story. Living Bird. 12:19.

Speich, S.M., J. Calambokidis, D.W. Shea, J. Peard, M. Witter, and D.M. Fry. 1992. Eggshell thinning and organochlorine contaminants in western Washington waterbirds. Colonial Waterbirds 15:103-112.

Schwarzbach, S.E., D.M. Fry, B. E. Rosson, and D. M. Bird. 1991. Metabolism and storage of p,p-1-dicofol in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) with comparisons to Ring-neck Doves (Streptopelia risoria). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 20:206-210.

Petreas, M.X., L.R. Goldman, D.G. Hayward, R.R. Chang, J.J. Flattery, T. Weismuller, R.D. Stephens, D.M. Fry, C. Rappe, S. Bergek, and M. Hjelt. 1990. Bioaccumulation of PCDD/PCDFs in chickens: controlled exposure studies. Chemosphere 20.

Tjeerdema, R.S., M.M. Singer, G.M. Scelfo, D.L. Smalheer, L.M. Swall, G.E. Croston, D.M. Fry, and M. Martin. 1990. Oil dispersant and petroleum toxicity in seabirds and marine mammals in vitro evaluation of hemolytic anemia: the toxicology of oil spill cleanup agents. Aquatic Toxicology Program, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz. Report prepared for California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA.

Fry, D.M., and L.A. Addiego. 1988. Effects of oil exposure and stress on seabird endocrine systems. In Proceedings of the International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine Annual Meeting, May 22-26.

Fry, D.M., and G.M. Santolo. 1988. The importance of evaluating sub-lethal pesticide effects to wildlife: a case study with Compound 1080 and turkey vultures. In Proceedings, 1988 International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council Conference. IWRC, Walnut Creek, CA.

Fry, D.M., and B. Todd. 1988. New in vitro techniques for testing oil and dispersant toxicity to seabirds and marine mammals. In Proceedings, 1988 International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council Conference. IWRC, Walnut Creek, CA.

Fry, D.M., and L.A. Addiego. 1987. Hemolytic anemia complicates the cleaning of oiled seabirds. Wildlife Journal 10:3-8.

Fry, D.M., S.I. Fefer, and L. Sileo. 1987. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan Albatrosses and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands. Marine Pollution Bulletin 39:1-9.

Fry, D.M., C.K. Toone, S.M. Speich, and R.J. Peard. 1987. Sex ratio skew and breeding patterns of gulls: demographic and toxicological considerations. Studies in Avian Biology 10:26-43.

Klasing, K.C., D.E. Laurin, R.K. Peng, and D.M. Fry. 1987. Immunologically mediated growth depression in chicks: Influence of feed intake, corticosterone, and interleukin 1. Journal of Nutrition 117:1629.

Carter, H.R., V.A. Lee, G.W. Page, M.W. Parker, R.G. Ford, G. Swartzman, S.W. Kress, B.R. Siskin, S.W. Singer, and D.M. Fry. 1986. Apex Houston oil spill in central California: seabird injury assessments and litigation process. Marine Ornithology 31:9-19.

Fry, D.M., L. Addiego, S. Schwarzbach, and C.R. Grau. 1986. Hematological effects of Bunker C fuel oil on Common Murres (Uria aalge). Pacific Seabird Group Bulletin 13:28.

Nero and Associates. 1987. Seabird Oil Toxicity Study: final report. Report to U.S. Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service, Pacific OCS Region, Camarillo, CA.

Fry, D.M., J. Swenson, L.A. Addiego, and C.R. Grau. 1986. Influence of breeding success on mate fidelity in Wedge-tailed Shearwaters. Pacific Seabird Group Bulletin 13:29.

Fry, D.M., J. Swenson, L.A. Addiego, C.R. Grau, and A. Kang. 1986. Reduced reproduction of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters exposed to single doses of weathered Santa Barbara crude oil. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 15:453-463.

Fry, D.M., G. Santolo, and C.R. Grau. 1986. Effects of 1080 poison on Turkey Vultures. Report to California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. 42 pp.

Calambokidi, J., S.M. Speich, J. Peard, G.H. Steiger, J.C. Cubbage, D.M. Fry, and L.J. Lowenstine. 1985. Biology of Puget Sound marine mammals and marine birds: population health and evidence of pollution effects. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memorandum. NOSOMA 18, Rockville, Maryland.

Fry, D.M., and L.J. Lowestine. 1985. Pathology of Common Murres and Cassinís Auklets exposed to oil. Archives Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 14:725-727.

Fry, D.M., R. Boekelheide, J. Swenson, A. Kang, J. Young, and C.R. Grau. 1985. Long-term responses of breeding seabirds to oil exposure. Pacific Seabird Group Bulletin 12:23.

Lowenstine, L.J., and D.M. Fry. 1985. Adenovirus-like particles associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidney of a Common Murre (Uria aalge). Avian Diseases 29:208-213.

Knaak, J.B., K. Yee, C.R. Ackerman, G. Zweig, D.M. Fry, and B.W. Wilson. 1984. Percutaneous-absorption and dermal dose cholinesterase response studies with parathion and carbaryl in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 76:252-263.

Rattner, B.A., V.P. Eroschenko, G.A. Fox, D.M. Fry, and J. Gorsline. 1984. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants. Journal of Experimental Zoology 232:683-690.

Fry, D.M. 1983. Techniques for sexing monomorphic vultures. Pp. 356-374 in S.R. Wilbur and J.A. Jackson (eds.), Vulture biology and management. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Fry, D.M. 1981. Sexing techniques for vultures. Vulture News 6:3-6.

Fry, D.M., and C.K. Toone. 1981. DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos. Science 213:922-924.

Fry, D.M. 1978. California Condor study to develop sexing techniques. Report to California Department of Fish and Game, Davis, CA.

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