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Zoogeographic Regions

          The zoogeographic regions used in GRIN are based on standard texts and especially on the maps and information in the recent works by Newton (2003. The speciation and biogeography of birds. Academic Press.) and Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001. Raptors of the world. Houghton Mifflin.). The descriptive text is based largely on the more the extensive information in the former reference. Alternative designations are shown in parentheses. The species totals include both resident and non-resident taxa; vagrants are not included.

Afrotropical (Ethiopian). Africa south of the Sahara and the Indian Ocean islands (Madagascar, Comoro Islands, Seychelles, and Mascarene Islands), which are sometimes separated as the "Malagasy Region." Latitudes 20N to 35S. Total area ~21 million km2. Total diurnal raptor species: 107.

Australasian. Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand and Pacific Islands, including Solomons, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, and Chathams. Total area ~8.9 million km2. Total diurnal raptor species: 52.

Indomalayan (Oriental). Southeast Asia and adjacent islands south of the Himalayas though the Indonesian Archipelago, Philippines, and Borneo to "Wallace's Line" between Bali and Lombok. Total area ~9.6 million km2. Total diurnal raptor species: 101.

Nearctic. North America, Mexico north of the tropics, and Greenland. Longitudes 168°W to 15W; latitudes ~20N to 85N. Total area ~21 million km2. Total diurnal raptor species: 37.

Neotropical. Tropical Mexico, Central America, South America and adjacent islands (Galapagos, Falklands), and the West Indies. Longitudes 112W to 35W; latitudes 20N to 57S. Total area ~18.2 million km2. The northern latitudinal boundary is a largely meaningless approximation, since tropical habitats extend beyond it to southern Sonora on the west and southern Tamaulipas on the eastern side of the country, but only to the southern edge of the Mexican plateau in the interior. Species assignments to the Nearctic and Neotropical regions are made accordingly. Total diurnal raptor species: 102.

Oceanian (Pacific). Various Pacific Ocean islands (principally Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and Hawaiian Islands). Total area ~166 million km2 (land area 46,632 million km2). Total diurnal raptor species: 5.

Palearctic. All of Europe, Africa north of the Sahara, and Asia north of the Himalayas. Longitudes 10W to 170W; latitudes 25N to 80N. Total area ~46 million km2. Total diurnal raptor species: 68.








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Oceanian Nearctic Neotropical Afrotropical Indomalayan Australasian Oceanian Palearctic