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Harpagus bidentatus

Additional details on Distribution:

United States: The first Double-toothed Kite recorded in the United States was photographed by Dave Hanson on 4 May 2011 at Boy Scout Woods, High Island, Galveston County, Texas, and the record was recently accepted by the Texas Bird Records Committee (http://texasbirds.org/tbrc/news.htm) (Carpenter 2012). Photographs can be seen at http://hansonnaturephotography.smugmug.com/Nature/Texas-Birds/17293655_vKBNQB#1352562325_vLdkzWN.

Mexico: Resident on the Pacific slope in Guerrero and southeastern Oaxaca and in the Gulf-Caribbean lowlands from northern Oaxaca, southern Veracruz, and Quintana Roo southward (AOU 1998). Fairly common to common resident to 1,500 m on the Atlantic slope from southern Veracruz southward, uncommon to rare in the Yucatan Peninsula, and occurring locally on the Pacific slope in Jalisco, Guerrero, and eastern Oaxaca (Howell and Webb 1995). more....

Belize: Uncommon resident away from the coast and rare near the coast, except for the northeastern portion of the country. Occasionally recorded on Ambergris Caye, where possibly resident (Jones 2003).

Guatemala: Rare resident in the Caribbean lowlands and the Petén (Land 1970). Smithe and Paynter (1963) collected three specimens at Tikal. Vannini (1989) reported repeated sightings at Faro, Dept. Quetzaltenango, in June 1987, the first records for the Pacific slope. Howell and Webb (1992) saw 13-14 birds, including at least six pairs, at Cerro San Gil, Dpto. Izabal, in February-March 1991. Eisermann and Avendaño (2007) regarded it as a breeding resident in the hislands and ther lowlands and foothills of the Atlantic slope.

El Salvador: Dickey and van Rossem (1938) reported one specimen and one possible sight record at Volcán de Conchagua in southeastern El Salvador, and Komar and Dominguez (2001) knew of three records. An immature seen at El Imposible National Park on 6 December 2006 was only the fourth record for El Salvador (Jones and Komar 2007), and another bird was seen there on 6 October 2007 (Jones and Komar 2008). At least two immatures were seen at El Imposible in early November 2009, and one was trapped and banded by the SalvaNATURA monitoring team on 6 November (Jones and Komar 2010). There were three records of immatures in the winter of 2009-2010 (Jones and Komar 2010). The latter authorities noted that there are now 11 records for El Salvador, nine since 2005, and all are from the period from early November to early March, suggesting that the species is a winter or dry season visitor.

Honduras: Apparently not common, as Monroe (1969) knew of only a single specimen (fasciatus) from Honduras. Thurber et al. (1987) saw a bird at Copan on 10 April 1969. Not yet recorded from the Moskitia region (Anderson et al. 2004). Howell and Webb (1992) saw one at Lancetilla Dpto. Atlantida on 12, March 1991, which they thought was only the second record for the country. They commented that this species is often one of the most common rainforest raptors in Central America and that its perceived rarity may be attributable to field identification problems [or simply being overlooked (ed.)].

Nicaragua: Permanent resident, uncommon on the Pacific slope, probably rare in the Central Highlands, and uncommon in the Caribbean lowlands (T.R. Howell in Martínez-Sánchez and Will 2010). The only records from the Central Highlands are two specimens collected by Richardson at San Rafael del Norte, Depto. de Jinotega.

Costa Rica: Uncommon to fairly common resident in humid-forested lowlands and foothills, locally to 1,500 m on both slopes; rare in the dry Pacific Northwest (Stiles and Skutch 1989). It was regarded as rare by Carriker (1910), but was perhaps overlooked. Uncommon to rare and seen at "irregular intervals" at Finca La Selva by Slud (1960). The latter author found this species at three localities in the upper tropical and lower subtropical belts from the Térraba region to the Panama border, but he did not record it in the Pacific lowlands; on the Caribbean side it ranges from the lowlands into the upper subtropical belt, reaching the Pacific side of the central plateau along its southern edge and overlapping the northwestern divide (Slud 1964). Later, Slud (1980) recorded a pair of this species in a high water-table, evergreen woodland in the Hacienda Palo Taboga area of Guanacaste near the end of January, and they were breaking off twigs, presumably to build a nest. He also recorded the species twice in March at Hacienda Palo Verde in Guanacaste (Slud op cit.).

Panama: Fairly common in more humid lowlands on both slopes; absent from dry Pacific lowlands from eastern side of Azuero Peninsula to southern Coclé. Ranges in lower numbers up into the foothlls and into lower highlands in western Chiriquí. Also fairly common on Coiba Island. Widespread in the Canal area, where it is more numerous on the Caribbean side (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989). "Tolerably common" resident (fasciatus) in forested areas throughout the mainland and on Isla Coiba (Wetmore 1965).

Colombia: Todd and Carriker (1922) found this species to be quite common in the Santa Marta region, where it was found from the lower edge of the foothills up to 5,000 ft (1,538 m) at Cincinnati. Fairly common resident up to about 1,200 m (Hilty and Brown 1986). See Márquez et al. (2005) for a list of Colombian specimen localities.

Ecuador: Uncommon to fairly common resident in the lowlands of both eastern (bidentatus) and western (fasciatus) Ecuador and rare to uncommon in montane forest in the subtropical zone on both slopes of the Andes. Recorded mainly below 1,500 m, but ranges higher locally, occasionally up to 2,200 m (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001).

Bolivia: Pearson (1975) considered this species to be rare at Tumichucua, Dept. Beni. A gravid female was collected in a forest island 50 km E of San Borja, Ballivian, Dept. Beni, on 23 October 1983 (Cabot and Serrano 1986).

Peru: Common in "high ground forest," but rare in pantanal and uncommon in transitional and upland forest at Cocha Cashu in Manu National Park in southeastern Peru (Robinson 1994). Uncommon in humid lowland forests east of the Andes and occasionally occurs in the subtropical zone to 2,500 m (Clements and Shany 2001).

Trinidad: Rather uncommon resident (bidentatus) of forested areas in both the Northern and Central ranges. Most records are from January to June, so it possibly migrates to the mainland; these dates suggest the species breeds on Trinidad (ffrench 1991). A set of three eggs purportedly taken in the Caroni Marshes on 11 March 1933 is in the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology collection (WFVZ #16,323). ffrench (op cit.) was evidently unaware of these specimens, or chose to omit them, as he stated that there were no breeding records from Trinidad. Murphy (2004) reported that it is most frequently reported from the Northern Range, and it is uncommon, but frequent, in the Arima Valley. Occurs only on Trinidad.

Venezuela: Fairly common resident (bidentatus) in humid and wet forest to 1,800 m north of the Orinoco and usually to 900 m south of the Orinoco. Probably absent from the llanos, and occurs mainly in montane areas north of the Orinoco (Hilty 2003). Alvarez et al. (1996) regarded it as widespread in the Sierra Imataca.

Guyana: Uncommon resident (Braun et al. 2000).

French Guiana: One of the most frequent raptor species recorded at all forest sites surveyed, with abundance decreasing from primary to disturbed and coastal forests (Thiollay 2007).

Suriname: Fairly common resident (bidentatus) in forests and forest edges in the savanna region and the interior, but not in the cultivated region (Haverschmidt and Mees 1994)

Brazil: Occurs in Amazonia, northern Maranhão, Pernambuco, eastern Bahia, eastern MInas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro (Meyer de Schauensee 1966). Occurs in Amazonia, the northeast, and east, including Rio de Janeiro (Sick 1993).

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