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Aquila chrysaetos

Additional details on Conservation:

Canada: Last assessed in April 1996 and determined to be "Not at Risk" (COSEWIC 2009). more....

United States: Not listed at the federal level. Kochert and Steenhof (2002) provided a comprehensive review of the status and population trends of Golden Eagles in the United States and Canada, and they concluded that the greatest conservation challenge in managing populations is offsetting the adverse effects of human activity. Of Golden Eagles found dead from the early 1960s to the mid-1990s, 73% died from human-related causes, including accidental trauma (27%), electrocution (25%), shooting (15%), and poisoning (6%) (Franson et al. 1995). Accidental trauma included collisions with cars, fences, wires, and wind turbines. more....

Mexico: Classified as Threatened (Instituto Nacional de Ecología).

Great Britain: Golden Eagle populations in Britain were lower in the 19th and early 20th centuries than in recent decades, owing to high levels of persecution from sheep farmers, gamekeepers, and collectors (Watson 1997). Populations recovered to some extent during and immediately after World Wars I and II, and stricter protective legislation was introduced in 1954 and 1981 was accompanied by an expansion of geographic range back into many, but not all, of the areas occupied previously (Eaton et al. 2007). The British population is now considered to be stable, and there has been a sizeable increase in the eagle population in Scotland since the 1950s, when there were only 190 pairs known (Nicholson 1957) (although this may have been an underestimate). This probably indicates a decline in the depredations of gamekeepers, shepherds, egg collectors, and other agents of human pesecution. This species was also possibly affected by contaminants in the late 1950s and early 1960s (Lockie et al. 1969, Newton and Galbraith 1991). In the 2003 survey, numbers were higher in western Scotland, Mull, and the Outer Hebrides, but there was a decline in the eastern and south-central Highlands. Although persecution is still high in areas with a high prevalence of grouse moors, there has been little change in the overall Golden Eagle population, despite considerable change in the distribution of the population between regions (RSPB 2004, Eaton et al. 2007). An analysis of factors constraining the distribution of Golden Eagles in Scotland between 1992 and 2003 confirmed that deliberate persecution continues to be the main limiting factor and that there are increasingly large areas of suitable habitat unoccupied by breeding pairs. Other negative influences, including recreational disturbance, the planting of commercial conifer forests, and a purported decline in the availability of carrion, are not significant limiting factors to the Scottish eagle population (Whitfield et al. 2007).

Ireland: Categorized as a species of High Conservation Concern (BirdWatch Ireland 2008).

Spain: Near Threatened (Martí and Del Moral 2003). The results of the partial 2008 census suggested that the Golden Eagle population is increasing in Spain, perhaps as much as 20% since the mid-1990s (del Moral 2009).

Belarus: Ivanovski (1985) reported losses from trapping and poisoning, and the population also declined as the result of the drainage and cultivation of upland bogs.

Russia: Listed in the Red Data Books for the Moscow region and the Russian Federation (Kalyakin and Voltzit 2006).

Czech Republic: Critically endangered. It was a regular breeding species in the Beskydy and Krkonose Mountains, and possibly in flooded woodland around Lanzhot until the end of the 19th century, and during the first 60 years of the 20th century, a few unsuccessful breeding attempts were documented at various sites across the country (Kren 2000).

Croatia: The breeding population is Endangered (Radovíc et al. 2003).

Greece: During the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, Golden Eagles were widespread and even common over the entire mainland and on many islands, both in the Aegean and the Ionian Sea (Reiser 1905, Harrison and Pateff 1937). They declined significantly after World War II (Handrinos and Akriotis 1997).

Armenia: Numbers appear to be similar to those of historical records (Leister and Sosnin 1942, Dal 1954). Previously identified as a species of special concern (Movsesian and Ayrumian 1987) and currently classified as Undetermined because of the threat of illegal shooting (Adamian and Klem 1999).

United Arab Emirates: Regarded as Threatened (Aspinwall and Hellyer 2006).

NORTHERN SAHEL: Recorded in the early 1970s in Aïr, Niger and Adrar des Iforhas, Mali by Thiollay (1977), this small, isolated population has managed to survive in a marginal and arid environment (Goar and Rukowsky 2000, Clouet and Goar 2003, 2004, 2006), but productivity may be very low and no immatures were seen during surveys in 2004 (Thiollay 2006).

China: First Class Important Protected Bird in China (Weizhi 2006).

South Korea: Endangered (National Institute of Biological Resources 2011).

Japan: Endangered. Masuda et al. (1998) investigated mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences and karyotype data for 23 Golden Eagles and found that it is likely that birds from Japan and Korea together form a common conservation unit, which has important implications for management. Ozawa (2009) stated that food shortages and decreases in suitable foraging habitat are assumed to be responsible for an observed decline in population size and reproductive success in Japan.





















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