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White-necked Hawk
Leucopternis lacernulatus

Status: Vulnerable

Population Trend: Declining.

Other Names: Band-tailed Mantled Hawk, Leucopternis lacernulata.


Leucopternis lacernulatus
click to enlarge
Distribution: Neotropical. Eastern BRAZIL (Alagoas and southern Bahia to São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Santa Catarina). more....

Subspecies: Monotypic.

Taxonomy: Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes, Amaral et al. (2006) found that the genus Leucopternis, as traditionally arranged, is not monophyletic and that it is a composite of three independent lineages. The predominantly black and white plumage shared by several species has evolved at least twice. This species was formerly regarded as being closely related to the L. melanops-kuhli complex, or even conspecific with it, but Amaral et al. (op cit.) did find a close relationship between these forms. Their data revealed the existence of a clade formed by this species and Leucopternis plumbeus, L. schistacea, L. lacernulatus, Buteogallus urubitinga, and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus. The White-necked Hawk actually appears to be most closely related to the Savanna Hawk, Buteogallus (Heterospizias) meridionalis, with which it forms a sister species. David and Gosselin (2002) pointed out that the generic name Leucopternis is masculine, hence the change from ""lacernulata" to lacernulatus.

Movements: Non-migratory (Bildstein 2006).

Habitat and Habits: Occurs in primary forest in lowlands and at mid-level elevations or higher (up to 2,890). It has also been recorded in secondary habitats in Minas Gerais (Machado et al. (1998), where most records are from localities below 500 m (Canuto 2008). The latter author has recorded it on the periphery of cities, including Belo Horizonte. This species perches at forest edges, primarily in valleys, or soars in circles over the canopy (Sick 1993). It also apparently forages in the understory to some extent, as three were caught in mistnets in different locations on Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil by da Silva Garske and Alves de Andrade (2004). Occurs singly.

Food and Feeding Behavior: Probably feeds mostly on invertebrate prey, including grasshoppers, stick insects, gastropods, beetles and spiders (Martuscelli 1996). Carvalho Filho et al. (2008) reported that ants and small mammals, reptiles, and birds are also taken, and this species also follows bands of primates to capture flushed insects. more....

Breeding: No information, except that Canuto (2008) recorded nuptial displays between the months of September to December in Minas Gerais.

Conservation: Poorly studied, like other members of this genus, but considered to be a rare species with a small range. Its principal threats are habitat destruction and direct persecution. Categorized as Vulnerable by BirdLife International. more....

Important References: 
Amaral, F.S., M.J. Miller, L.F. Silveira, E. Bermingham, and A. Wajntal.
  2006. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves,
  Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine
  diversification. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6:1-10.
Bierregaard, R.O. 1994. White-necked Hawk. P. 169 in del Hoyo, J., A.
  Elliott, and J. Sargatal (eds). Handbook of birds of the world. Vol. 2. New
  World vultures to guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
BirdLife International. 2000. Threatened birds of the world. Lynx
  Edicions, Barcelona, Spain, and BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.
Collar, N.J., L.P. Gonzaga, N. Krabbe, A. Madroño Nieto, L.G. Naranjo,
  T.A. Parker, III, and D.C. Wege.
1992. Threatened birds of the America: the
  ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation,
  Cambridge, UK.
Ferguson-Lees, J., and D.A. Christie. 2001. Raptors of the world. Houghton
  Mifflin, Boston, MA.
Garske, C.E.S., and V. A. Andrade. 2004. Observações e capturas de
  Leucopternis lacernulata (Accipitridae) na Ilha da Marambaia, litoral sul
  do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Ferguson-Lees, J., and D.A. Christie. 2001. Raptors of the world. Houghton
  Mifflin, Boston, MA.
Lerner, H.R.L., M.C. Klaver, and D.P. Mindell. 2008. Molecular
  phylogenetics of the buteonine birds of prey (Accipitridae). Auk
  125:304-315.
Martuscelli, P. 1996. Hunting behavior of the Mantled Hawk Leucopternis
  polionota
and the White-necked Hawk L. lacernulata in southeastern
  Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 116:114-116.
Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: a natural history. Princeton University
  Press, Princeton, NJ.
more....

Current Research: Marcus Canuto is presently conducting a study of this species in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

Sites of Interest:
Xeno-canto
Vocalizations.
BirdLife International
Details on status and conservation needs.
Aves de Rapina do Brasil
Useful species account.

Researchers:
Canuto, Marcus
Raposo do Amaral, Fábio
Shrum, Peggy
Zorzin, Giancarlo

Last modified: 2/17/2011

Recommended Citation: Global Raptor Information Network. 2014. Species account: White-necked Hawk Leucopternis lacernulatus. Downloaded from http://www.globalraptors.org on 24 Apr. 2014








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