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Laggar Falcon
Falco jugger

Status: Near Threatened

Population Trend: Declining.

Other Names: Laggar, Lugger.

Falco jugger
click to enlarge
Distribution: Indomalayan/Palearctic. PAKISTAN east through most of INDIA and NEPAL to Assam and northern MYANMAR; also in southern AFGHANISTAN and possibly southeastern IRAN; vagrant to CHINA. more....

Subspecies: Monotypic.

Taxonomy: Formerly considered to be a race of F. biarmicus (Sibley and Monroe 1990), but forms a superspecies with other members of the subgenus Hierofalco (Kleinschmidt 1901), which also includes F. biarmicus, F. cherrug, and F. rusticolus (Nittinger et al. 2005), and this group may also include the Black Falcon (F. subniger) of Australia (Wink et al. 2004). more....

Movements: Irruptive or local migrant (Bildstein 2006).

Habitat and Habits: Occurs in dry open woodland and other open habitats with scattered trees and, at least formerly, it was often found in towns and villages. more....

Food and Feeding Behavior: Preys on birds, including domestic pigeons and chickens.

Breeding: Generally uses the old nest of vultures, kites, or crows placed in a tree, cliff, or building. Clutch size is usually 3 or 4 eggs, which are paler and pinker than peregrine eggs. more....

Conservation: Categorized as "Near Threatened" by BirdLife International. more....

Important References: 
Ali, S., and S.D. Ripley. 1968. Handbook of the birds of India and
  Pakistan. Vol. 1., Divers to hawks. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Baker, E.C.S. 1928. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and
  Burma. Vol. 5. 2nd ed. Taylor & Francis, London.
Cade, T.J. 1982. Falcons of the world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,
Clark, W.S. 1994. Laggar Falcon. P. 271 in del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, and
  J. Sargatal (eds). Handbook of birds of the world. Vol. 2. New World
  vultures to guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Ferguson-Lees, J., and D.A. Christie. 2001. Raptors of the world. Houghton
  Mifflin, Boston, MA.
Naoroji, R. 2006. Birds of prey of the Indian subcontinent. Christopher
  Helm, London.
Nittinger, F., E. Haring, W. Pinsker, M. Wink, and A. Gamauf. 2005. Out of
  Africa? Phylogenetic relationships between Falco biarmicus and the other
  hierofalcons (Aves: Falconidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics &
  Evolutionary Research 43:321-331.
Rasmussen, P.C., and J.C. Anderton. 2005. Birds of South Asia: the Ripley
  guide. Vols. 1-2. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions, Washington,
  D.C. and Barcelona, Spain.
Wink, M., H. Sauer-Gürth, D. Ellis, and R. Kenward. 2004. Phylogenetic
  relationships in the Hierofalco complex (Saker-, Gyr-, Lanner-, Laggar
  Falcon). Pp. 499-504 in R.D. Chancellor and B.-U. Meyburg (eds.)., Raptors
  worldwide. World Working Group on Birds of Prey, Berlin, and MME/BirdLife
  Hungary, Budapest.

Last modified: 9/4/2013

Recommended Citation: Global Raptor Information Network. 2020. Species account: Laggar Falcon Falco jugger. Downloaded from http://www.globalraptors.org on 31 May. 2020

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