Home | Species Database | Species Accounts | Bibliography | Researchers | Related Sites | Login

Southern Philippine Hawk-eagle
Nisaetus pinskeri

Status: Endangered

Population Trend: Declining.

Other Names: Philippine Hawk-eagle, Philippine Hawk Eagle, Spizaetus philippensis.

Nisaetus pinskeri
click to enlarge
Distribution: Indomalayan: Endemic to southern PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (Basilan, Biliran, Bohol Mindanao, Negros, Samar, and Siquijor Islands).

Subspecies: Monotypic

Taxonomy: Based on molecular evidence, Gamauf et al. (2005a, 2005b) recommended treating these populations as a separate species from N. philippensis, and Preleuthner and Gamauf (1998) had earlier shown that there are distinct morphological and plumage pattern differences between the two forms. The Asian hawk-eagles were traditionally placed in the genus Spizaetus, but recent molecular studies by Helbig et al. (2005) have shown that the Asian species of the group represent a different lineage from the New World species and should therefore be assigned to a new genus for which the name Nisaetus Hodgson 1836 is available. This general concluson was also supported by the molecular study of Lerner and Mindell (2005), using DNA sequences from one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes. Gamauf et al. (2005b) and Haring et al. (2007) also confirmed that Asian Spizaetus (Nisaetus) species are monophyletic, and are distributed in two sub-clades, one of which consists of N. cirrhatus, N. philippensis, N. pinskeri, and N. lanceolatus. more....

Movements: Probably non-migratory.

Habitat and Habits: Occurs in forest and advanced second-growth from lowlands to over 1,900 m in montane mossy forest (Kennedy et al. 2000). Perches in concealed locations in canopy and often soars (Kennedy et al. op cit.).

Food and Feeding Behavior: Prey not recorded (Kennedy et al. 2000), but probably feeds on birds (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Breeding: No information (Kennedy et al. 2000).

Conservation: This species is not recognized by BirdLife International, but the Philippine Hawk-eagle, including the purported N. pinskeri populations, is designated as Vulnerable. As treated here, the separate species should probably be classified as Endangered. Both taxa are suffering from continuing habitat loss in many parts of their respective ranges and also from hunting and trapping pressure (BirdLife International 2009).

Population Estimates: Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) estimated the global population of the N. philippensis, including the populations now assigned to N. pinskeri, as being in the range of 1,001 to 10,000 individuals. Gamauf et al. (2005) pointed out that splitting the hawk-eagle populations of the Philippines into two species would lead to lower estimates of their respective population sizes, which they estimated at 200-220 pairs for N. philippensis on Luzon and 320-340 pairs for N. pinskeri on Mindanao (Preleuthner and Gamauf 1998). BirdLife International (2009) concluded that this leads to a global population estimate for the combined populations of 1,000 to 2,500 individuals.

Important References: 
Amadon, D. 1953. Remarks on the Asiatic hawk-eagles of the genus
  Spizaetus. Ibis 95:492-500.
Clark, W.S. 1994. Philippine Hawk-eagle. P. 204 in del Hoyo, J., A.
  Elliott, and J. Sargatal (eds). Handbook of birds of the world. Vol. 2. New
  World vultures to guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Gamauf, A., M. Preleuthner, and W. Pinsker. 1998. Distribution and field
  identification of Philippine birds of prey: Philippine Hawk Eagle Spizaetus
and Changeable Hawk Eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus. Forktail
Gamauf, A., J.-O. Gjershaug, N. RÝv, K. KvalÝy, and E. Haring. 2005a.
  Species or subspecies? The dilemna of taxonomic ranking of some South-East
  Asian hawk-eagles (genus Spizaetus). Bird Conservation International
Gamauf, A., J.-O. Gjershaug, N. RÝv, K. KvalÝy, and E. Haring. 2005b.
  Molecular phylogeny of hawk-eagles (genus Spizaetus). Zoologische
  Mededelingen Leiden 79-3(21):179-180.
Gjershaug, J.O.. 2006. Taxonomy and conservation status of hawk-eagles
  (Genus Nisaetus) in South-east Asia. Ph.D. dissertation, Norwegian
  University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Haring, E., K. KvalÝy, J.O. Gjershaug, and A. Gamauf. 2007. Convergent
  evolution and paraphyly of the hawk-eagles of the genus Spizaetus (Aves,
  Accipitridae) -- phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial markers.
  Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 45:353-365.
Helbig, A.J., A. Kocum, I. Seibold, and M.J. Braun. 2005. A multi-gene
  phylogeny of aquiline eagles (Aves: Accipitriformes) reveals extensive
  paraphyly at the genus level. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Kennedy, R.S., P.C. Gonzales, E.C. Dickinson, H.C. Miranda, Jr., and T.H.
2000. A guide to the birds of the Philippines. Oxford University
  Press, Oxford, UK.
Preleuthner, M., and A. Gamauf. 1998. A possible new subspecies of the
  Philippine Hawk-eagle (SpizaŽtus philippensis) and its future prospects.
  Journal of Raptor Research 32:126-135.

Sites of Interest:
Red Data Book Threatened Birds of Asia
Information on conservation status and threats.

Delos Santos, Johannes
Gamauf, Anita
Gjershaug, Jan Ove
IbaŮez, Jayson

Last modified: 6/11/2010

Recommended Citation: Global Raptor Information Network. 2020. Species account: Southern Philippine Hawk-eagle Nisaetus pinskeri. Downloaded from http://www.globalraptors.org on 25 Sep. 2020

Home | Species Database | Species Accounts | Bibliography | Researchers | Related Sites | Login

Copyright © 1999-2012 The Peregrine Fund. All Rights Reserved.